A report on Ammonia and Mercury (element)

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Mercury-discharge spectral calibration lamp
Jabir ibn Hayyan
The symbol for the planet Mercury (☿) has been used since ancient times to represent the element
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Native mercury with cinnabar, Socrates mine, Sonoma County, California. Cinnabar sometimes alters to native mercury in the oxidized zone of mercury deposits.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
The bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
Liquid ammonia bottle
Amalgam filling
Household ammonia
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) mercury switch
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
Mercury manometer to measure pressure
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
EPA workers clean up residential mercury spill in 2004
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Mercury(II) salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia.

- Mercury (element)

Experts also warn that prolonged contact of ammonia solutions with silver, mercury or iodide salts can also lead to explosive products: such mixtures are often formed in qualitative inorganic analysis, and that it needs to be lightly acidified but not concentrated (<6% w/v) before disposal once the test is completed.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

4 related topics with Alpha

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Mercury(I) chloride

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Chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2.

Chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2.

Also known as the mineral calomel (a rare mineral) or mercurous chloride, this dense white or yellowish-white, odorless solid is the principal example of a mercury(I) compound.

The "black" name (somewhat surprising for a white compound) is probably due to its characteristic disproportionation reaction with ammonia, which gives a spectacular black coloration due to the finely dispersed metallic mercury formed.

Old drawing of a chloralkali process plant (Edgewood, Maryland)

Chloralkali process

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Industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions.

Industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions.

Old drawing of a chloralkali process plant (Edgewood, Maryland)
Cell room of a chlor-alkali plant ca. 1920
Basic membrane cell used in the electrolysis of brine. At the anode (A), chloride (Cl−) is oxidized to chlorine. The ion-selective membrane (B) allows the counterion Na+ to freely flow across, but prevents anions such as hydroxide (OH−) and chloride from diffusing across. At the cathode (C), water is reduced to hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The net process is the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of NaCl into industrially useful products sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and chlorine gas.
Mercury cell for chloralkali process

Much of this hydrogen is used to produce hydrochloric acid, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, or is burned for power and/or steam production.

The diaphragm cell process, and the mercury cell process have been used for over 100 years and are environmentally unfriendly through their use of asbestos and mercury, respectively, but the membrane cell process was only developed in the past 60 years.

Silver is extremely ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide.

Silver

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Chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47.

Chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47.

Silver is extremely ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide.
Silver(I) sulfide
The three common silver halide precipitates: from left to right, silver iodide, silver bromide, and silver chloride.
Crystals of silver nitrate
Structure of the diamminesilver(I) complex, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Different colors of silver–copper–gold alloys
Silver vase, circa 2400 BC
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 1490s
16th-century fresco painting of Judas being paid thirty pieces of silver for his betrayal of Jesus
Acanthite sample from the Imider mine in Morocco
A 2004 American Silver Eagle bullion coin, minted in .999 fine silver.
Embossed silver sarcophagus of Saint Stanislaus in the Wawel Cathedral was created in main centers of the 17th century European silversmithery - Augsburg and Gdańsk
17th century silverware
A tray of South Asian sweets, with some pieces covered with shiny silver vark
Proto-Elamite kneeling bull holding a spouted vessel; 3100–2900 BC; 16.3 x 6.3 x 10.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Ancient Egyptian figurine of Horus as falcon god with an Egyptian crown; circa 500 BC; silver and electrum; height: 26.9 cm; Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst (Munich, Germany)
Ancient Greek tetradrachm; 315–308 BC; diameter: 2.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ancient Greek gilded bowl; 2nd–1st century BC; height: 7.6 cm, dimeter: 14.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman plate; 1st–2nd century AD; height: 0.1 cm, diameter: 12.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman bust of Serapis; 2nd century; 15.6 x 9.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Auricular basin with scenes from the story of Diana and Actaeon; 1613; length: 50 cm, height: 6 cm, width: 40 cm; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
French Rococo tureen; 1749; height: 26.3 cm, width: 39 cm, depth: 24 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Rococo coffeepot; 1757; height: 29.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Neoclassical ewer; 1784–1785; height: 32.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Neo-Rococo coffeepot; 1845; overall: 32 x 23.8 x 15.4 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
French Art Nouveau dessert spoons; circa 1890; Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum (New York City)
Art Nouveau jardinière; circa 1905–1910; height: 22 cm, width: 47 cm, depth: 22.5 cm; Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Hand mirror; 1906; height: 20.7 cm, weight: 88 g; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
Mystery watch; ca. 1889; diameter: 5.4 cm, depth: 1.8 cm; Musée d'Horlogerie of Le Locle, (Switzerland)
Price of silver 2009-2022

The resulting adduct can be decomposed with ammonia to release the free alkene.

The abundance of silver in the Earth's crust is 0.08 parts per million, almost exactly the same as that of mercury.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine

Chlorine

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Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
Liquid chlorine analysis
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
Ignaz Semmelweis
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack

Diaphragm methods produce dilute and slightly impure alkali, but they are not burdened with the problem of mercury disposal and they are more energy efficient.

Hypochlorite bleach (a popular laundry additive) combined with ammonia (another popular laundry additive) produces chloramines, another toxic group of chemicals.