A report on Ammonia and Salt (chemistry)

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Edge-on view of portion of crystal structure of hexamethyleneTTF/TCNQ charge transfer salt.
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Solid lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4)
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Salts of strong acids and strong bases ("strong salts") are non-volatile and often odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases ("weak salts") may smell like the conjugate acid (e.g., acetates like acetic acid (vinegar) and cyanides like hydrogen cyanide (almonds)) or the conjugate base (e.g., ammonium salts like ammonia) of the component ions.

- Salt (chemistry)

It combines with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, etc. Perfectly dry ammonia gas will not combine with perfectly dry hydrogen chloride gas; moisture is necessary to bring about the reaction.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

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Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride

Ammonium

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Positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula [NH4]+.

Positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula [NH4]+.

Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride
Formation of ammonium

It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3).

Ammonium cation is found in a variety of salts such as ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate.

Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron. Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas the addition of an electron gives an anion (right). The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation. Hydrogen forms the only charge-+1 cation that has no electrons, but even cations that (unlike hydrogen) retain one or more electrons are still smaller than the neutral atoms or molecules from which they are derived.

Ion

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Atom or molecule with a net electrical charge.

Atom or molecule with a net electrical charge.

Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron. Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas the addition of an electron gives an anion (right). The hydrogen anion, with its loosely held two-electron cloud, has a larger radius than the neutral atom, which in turn is much larger than the bare proton of the cation. Hydrogen forms the only charge-+1 cation that has no electrons, but even cations that (unlike hydrogen) retain one or more electrons are still smaller than the neutral atoms or molecules from which they are derived.
Schematic of an ion chamber, showing drift of ions. Electrons drift faster than positive ions due to their much smaller mass.
Avalanche effect between two electrodes. The original ionization event liberates one electron, and each subsequent collision liberates a further electron, so two electrons emerge from each collision: the ionizing electron and the liberated electron.
Equivalent notations for an iron atom (Fe) that lost two electrons, referred to as ferrous.
Mixed Roman numerals and charge notations for the uranyl ion. The oxidation state of the metal is shown as superscripted Roman numerals, whereas the charge of the entire complex is shown by the angle symbol together with the magnitude and sign of the net charge.
An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion . The 3-dimensional shell represents a single arbitrary isopotential.

Ions are also created by chemical interactions, such as the dissolution of a salt in liquids, or by other means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, dissolving an anode via ionization.

For example, when ammonia,, accepts a proton, —a process called protonation—it forms the ammonium ion,.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine

Chlorine

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Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
Liquid chlorine analysis
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
Ignaz Semmelweis
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack

Chlorine played an important role in the experiments conducted by medieval alchemists, which commonly involved the heating of chloride salts like ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) and sodium chloride (common salt), producing various chemical substances containing chlorine such as hydrogen chloride, mercury(II) chloride (corrosive sublimate), and hydrochloric acid (in the form of aqua regia).

Hypochlorite bleach (a popular laundry additive) combined with ammonia (another popular laundry additive) produces chloramines, another toxic group of chemicals.

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

Water

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Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
The three common states of matter
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Water cycle
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Water is a good polar solvent, that dissolves many salts and hydrophilic organic molecules such as sugars and simple alcohols such as ethanol.

In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water.

Ammonium chloride pyrolyses and reforms into ammonium chloride smoke after cooling.

Ammonium chloride

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Ammonium chloride pyrolyses and reforms into ammonium chloride smoke after cooling.
Ammonium chloride crystal(s)

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

It is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid

Acid

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Molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton , known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid.

Molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton , known as a Brønsted–Lowry acid, or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair, known as a Lewis acid.

Zinc, a typical metal, reacting with hydrochloric acid, a typical acid
Svante Arrhenius
Acetic acid, a weak acid, donates a proton (hydrogen ion, highlighted in green) to water in an equilibrium reaction to give the acetate ion and the hydronium ion. Red: oxygen, black: carbon, white: hydrogen.
Hydrochloric acid (in beaker) reacting with ammonia fumes to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
This is an ideal titration curve for alanine, a diprotic amino acid. Point 2 is the first equivalent point where the amount of NaOH added equals the amount of alanine in the original solution.
Carbonated water (H2CO3 aqueous solution) is commonly added to soft drinks to make them effervesce.
Basic structure of an amino acid.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a carboxylic acid

Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

An example is boron trifluoride (BF3), whose boron atom has a vacant orbital that can form a covalent bond by sharing a lone pair of electrons on an atom in a base, for example the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3).

The red colored ferricyanide ion, one component of Prussian blue

Hydrogen cyanide

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

The red colored ferricyanide ion, one component of Prussian blue
The South Pole Vortex of Saturn's moon Titan is a giant swirling cloud of HCN (November 29, 2012).

The salts of the cyanide anion are known as cyanides.

Hydrogen cyanide forms in at least limited amounts from many combinations of hydrogen, carbon, and ammonia.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

Base (chemistry)

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In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Ammonia fumes from aqueous ammonium hydroxide (in test tube) reacting with hydrochloric acid (in beaker) to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
Sodium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide

A reaction between aqueous solutions of an acid and a base is called neutralization, producing a solution of water and a salt in which the salt separates into its component ions.

However, there are also other Brønsted bases which accept protons, such as aqueous solutions of ammonia (NH3) or its organic derivatives (amines).

Removal of cyanide from cassava in Nigeria.

Cyanide

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Chemical compound that contains a C≡N functional group.

Chemical compound that contains a C≡N functional group.

Removal of cyanide from cassava in Nigeria.

Soluble salts such as sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are highly toxic.

The principal process used to manufacture cyanides is the Andrussow process in which gaseous hydrogen cyanide is produced from methane and ammonia in the presence of oxygen and a platinum catalyst.

The nitrate ion with the partial charges shown

Nitrate

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Polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.

Polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.

The nitrate ion with the partial charges shown
Canonical resonance structures for the nitrate ion
Sea surface nitrate from the World Ocean Atlas

Salts containing this ion are called nitrates.

Nitrates are produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria in the natural environment using ammonia or urea as a source of nitrogen and source of free energy.