A report on Ammonia and Urea

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
A plant in Bangladesh that produces urea fertilizer.
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Urea plant using ammonium carbamate briquettes, Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, ca. 1930
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

The liver forms it by combining two ammonia molecules (NH3) with a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule in the urea cycle.

- Urea

Urea, in the Bosch–Meiser urea process and in Wöhler synthesis

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

11 related topics with Alpha

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Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen

Nitrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen
The shapes of the five orbitals occupied in nitrogen. The two colours show the phase or sign of the wave function in each region. From left to right: 1s, 2s (cutaway to show internal structure), 2px, 2py, 2pz.
Table of nuclides (Segrè chart) from carbon to fluorine (including nitrogen). Orange indicates proton emission (nuclides outside the proton drip line); pink for positron emission (inverse beta decay); black for stable nuclides; blue for electron emission (beta decay); and violet for neutron emission (nuclides outside the neutron drip line). Proton number increases going up the vertical axis and neutron number going to the right on the horizontal axis.
Molecular orbital diagram of dinitrogen molecule, N2. There are five bonding orbitals and two antibonding orbitals (marked with an asterisk; orbitals involving the inner 1s electrons not shown), giving a total bond order of three.
Solid nitrogen on the plains of Sputnik Planitia on Pluto next to water ice mountains
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (pentaamine(dinitrogen)ruthenium(II)), the first dinitrogen complex to be discovered
Mesomeric structures of borazine, (–BH–NH–)3
Standard reduction potentials for nitrogen-containing species. Top diagram shows potentials at pH 0; bottom diagram shows potentials at pH 14.
Nitrogen trichloride
Nitrogen dioxide at −196 °C, 0 °C, 23 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. converts to colourless dinitrogen tetroxide at low temperatures, and reverts to  at higher temperatures.
Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen compounds through a land environment
A container vehicle carrying liquid nitrogen.

Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.

Animal metabolism of nitrogen in proteins, in general, results in the excretion of urea, while animal metabolism of nucleic acids results in the excretion of urea and uric acid.

Uric acid

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Heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

Heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

In 1882, the Ukrainian chemist Ivan Horbaczewski first synthesized uric acid by melting urea with glycine.

This involves a complex metabolic pathway that is energetically costly in comparison to processing of other nitrogenous wastes such as urea (from the urea cycle) or ammonia, but has the advantages of reducing water loss and preventing dehydration.

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility

Fertilizer

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Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.

Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility
World population supported with and without synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.
Founded in 1812, Mirat, producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in Salamanca (Spain).
Six tomato plants grown with and without nitrate fertilizer on nutrient-poor sand/clay soil. One of the plants in the nutrient-poor soil has died.
Inorganic fertilizer use by region
Total nitrogenous fertilizer consumption per region, measured in tonnes of total nutrient per year.
An apatite mine in Siilinjärvi, Finland.
Compost bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer
A large commercial compost operation
Applying superphosphate fertilizer by hand, New Zealand, 1938
Fertilizer burn
N-Butylthiophosphoryltriamide, an enhanced efficiency fertilizer.
Fertilizer use (2018). From FAO's World Food and Agriculture – Statistical Yearbook 2020
The diagram displays the statistics of fertilizer consumption in western and central European counties from data published by The World Bank for 2012.
Runoff of soil and fertilizer during a rain storm
Large pile of phosphogypsum waste near Fort Meade, Florida.
Red circles show the location and size of many dead zones.
Global methane concentrations (surface and atmospheric) for 2005; note distinct plumes

Only some bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by converting it to ammonia.

Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is solid and non-explosive, unlike ammonia and ammonium nitrate, respectively.

480px

Urea cycle

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Urea cycle.
Urea cycle colored.

The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea (NH2)2CO from ammonia (NH3).

Metabolic waste

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Metabolic wastes or excrements are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.

Metabolic wastes or excrements are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.

They are ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine.

Sample of human urine

Urine

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Liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals.

Liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals.

Sample of human urine
The chemical structure of urea
Urine under the microscope
Medical experts have long connected urine colour with certain medical conditions. A medieval chart showing the medical implications of different urine color
A Doctor Examining Urine. Trophime Bigot.
Urine of pregnant women in the first trimester is collected by a company which purifies the fertility hormone hCG from it (Ede, the Netherlands)
Urine after four months of storage, ready to be used in gardening activities (note the colour and turbidity change compared to fresh human urine).
Fresh human urine after excretion
Medieval Welsh text from the Red Book of Hergest on uroscopy, called Ansoddau’r Trwnc (the Qualities of Urine). Opening lines (translated):
Since it is through the qualities of the urine that a person's faults and his dangers and his diseases and his illness can be identified...
Image of two facing pages of the illuminated manuscript of "Isagoge", fols. 42b and 43a. On the top of the left hand page is an illuminated letter "D" - initial of "De urinarum differencia negocium" (The matter of the differences of urines). Inside the letter is a picture of a master on bench pointing at a raised flask while lecturing on the "Book on urines" of Theophilus. The right hand page is only shown in part. On its very bottom is an illuminated letter "U" - initial of "Urina ergo est colamentum sanguinis" (Urine is the filtrate of the blood). Inside the letter is a picture of a master holding up a flask while explaining the diagnostic significance of urine to a student or a patient. HMD Collection, MS E 78.
Dark urine due to low fluid intake.
Dark red urine due to blood (hematuria).
Dark red urine due to choluria.
Pinkish urine due to consumption of beetroots.
Green urine during long term infusion of the sedative propofol.

Cellular metabolism generates many by-products that are rich in nitrogen and must be cleared from the bloodstream, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine.

Sometime after leaving the body, urine may acquire a strong "fish-like" odor because of contamination with bacteria that break down urea into ammonia.

Ammonium nitrate

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3.

Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NH4NO3 + CaCO3

It is less concentrated than urea (46-0-0), giving ammonium nitrate a slight transportation disadvantage.

Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride

Ammonium

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Positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula [NH4]+.

Positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula [NH4]+.

Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride
Formation of ammonium

It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3).

In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, because urea is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism

Metabolism

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Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism
Structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a central intermediate in energy metabolism
Structure of a triacylglycerol lipid
This is a diagram depicting a large set of human metabolic pathways.
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Structure of the coenzyme acetyl-CoA.The transferable acetyl group is bonded to the sulfur atom at the extreme left.
The structure of iron-containing hemoglobin. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From.
A simplified outline of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
Mechanism of ATP synthase. ATP is shown in red, ADP and phosphate in pink and the rotating stalk subunit in black.
Plant cells (bounded by purple walls) filled with chloroplasts (green), which are the site of photosynthesis
Simplified version of the steroid synthesis pathway with the intermediates isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and squalene shown. Some intermediates are omitted for clarity.
Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1), which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of organisms from all three domains of life. Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some of the phyla included are shown around the tree.
Metabolic network of the Arabidopsis thaliana citric acid cycle. Enzymes and metabolites are shown as red squares and the interactions between them as black lines.
Aristotle's metabolism as an open flow model
Santorio Santorio in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medicina, first published 1614

Amino acids are either used to synthesize proteins and other biomolecules, or oxidized to urea and carbon dioxide to produce energy.

These organisms can use hydrogen, reduced sulfur compounds (such as sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate), ferrous iron (Fe(II)) or ammonia as sources of reducing power and they gain energy from the oxidation of these compounds.

The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen

Liver

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Major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth.

Major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth.

The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen
The liver, viewed from above, showing the left and right lobes separated by the falciform ligament
The liver, viewed from below, surface showing four lobes and the impressions
Impressions of the liver
Cells, ducts, and blood vessels
Hilum of the liver, circled in yellow
Shape of human liver in animation, with eight Couinaud segments labelled
CT scan showing an adult liver in the axial plane.
Adult ultrasound showing the right lobe of the liver and right kidney.
Biliary tract
Left lobe liver tumor
After resection of left lobe liver tumor
Maksalaatikko, a Finnish liver casserole
19th century drinking scene in Kordofan, home to the Humr tribe, who made a drink from giraffe liver. Plate from Le Désert et le Soudan by Stanislas d'Escayrac de Lauture.
Sheep's liver
Microscopic anatomy of the liver
Types of capillaries–sinusoid on right
alt=3D Medical Animation Still Shot Depicting parts of liver|3D Medical Animation Still Shot Depicting parts of liver
thumb|left|Liver veins
thumb|right|Diagram of liver, lobule, and portal tract and their inter-relations
Axial CT image showing anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the subcapsular anterior surface of the liver.<ref name="Sheporaitis">{{cite journal|pmid=9843288|year=1998|last1=Sheporaitis|first1=L|last2=Freeny|first2=PC|title=Hepatic and portal surface veins: A new anatomic variant revealed during abdominal CT|volume=171|issue=6|pages=1559–1564|doi=10.2214/ajr.171.6.9843288|journal=AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology}}</ref>
Maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT image as viewed anteriorly showing the anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the anterior surface of the liver
Lateral MIP view in the same patient
A CT scan in which the liver and portal vein are shown.
MDCT image. Arterial anatomy contraindicated for liver donation
MDCT image. Portal venous anatomy contraindicated for liver donation
MDCT image. 3D image created by MDCT can clearly visualize the liver, measure the liver volume, and plan the dissection plane to facilitate the liver transplantation procedure.
Phase contrast CT image. Contrast is perfusing the right liver but not the left due to a left portal vein thrombus.

The liver converts ammonia into urea as part of the ornithine cycle or the urea cycle, and the urea is excreted in the urine.