A report on Water and Ammonia

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
The three common states of matter
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Tetrahedral structure of water
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Water cycle
Liquid ammonia bottle
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Household ammonia
Water fountain
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
A young girl drinking bottled water
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Solvent properties: Ammonia readily dissolves in water. In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling. The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ammonia'.

- Ammonia

In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water.

- Water
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

10 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.

Hydrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A sample of sodium hydride
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy
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Most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water and organic compounds.

Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market.

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water

Hydrogen bond

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Primarily electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is covalently bound to a more electronegative "donor" atom or group, and another electronegative atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor (Ac).

Primarily electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is covalently bound to a more electronegative "donor" atom or group, and another electronegative atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor (Ac).

Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
AFM image of naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide molecules on silver-terminated silicon, interacting via hydrogen bonding, taken at 77  K. ("Hydrogen bonds" in the top image are exaggerated by artifacts of the imaging technique. )
An example of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in a self-assembled dimer complex. The hydrogen bonds are represented by dotted lines.
Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in acetylacetone helps stabilize the enol tautomer.
Examples of hydrogen bond donating (donors) and hydrogen bond accepting groups (acceptors)
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed green lines represent hydrogen bonds
Crystal structure of hexagonal ice. Gray dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds
Structure of nickel bis(dimethylglyoximate), which features two linear hydrogen-bonds.
The structure of part of a DNA double helix
Hydrogen bonding between guanine and cytosine, one of two types of base pairs in DNA
Para-aramid structure
A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules

The hydrogen bond is responsible for many of the abnormal physical and chemical properties of compounds of N, O, and F. In particular, intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group-16 hydrides that have much weaker hydrogen bonds.

For example, hydrogen fluoride—which has three lone pairs on the F atom but only one H atom—can form only two bonds; (ammonia has the opposite problem: three hydrogen atoms but only one lone pair).

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine

Chlorine

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Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
Liquid chlorine analysis
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
Ignaz Semmelweis
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack

Chlorination modifies the physical properties of hydrocarbons in several ways: chlorocarbons are typically denser than water due to the higher atomic weight of chlorine versus hydrogen, and aliphatic organochlorides are alkylating agents because chloride is a leaving group.

Hypochlorite bleach (a popular laundry additive) combined with ammonia (another popular laundry additive) produces chloramines, another toxic group of chemicals.

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide

Lone pair

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Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide
Lone pairs in ammonia (A), water (B), and hydrogen chloride (C)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Lone pair trends in group 14 triple bonds
The symmetry-adapted and hybridized lone pairs of H2O

A single lone pair can be found with atoms in the nitrogen group, such as nitrogen in ammonia.

For example, in carbon dioxide (CO2), the oxygen atoms are on opposite sides of the carbon (linear molecular geometry), whereas in water (H2O) the angle between the hydrogen atoms is 104.5° (bent molecular geometry).

BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid

Salt (chemistry)

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Chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge.

Chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge.

BMIM+PF6−, an ionic liquid
Edge-on view of portion of crystal structure of hexamethyleneTTF/TCNQ charge transfer salt.
Solid lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4)

Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts and salts that produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water are called acid salts.

Salts of strong acids and strong bases ("strong salts") are non-volatile and often odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases ("weak salts") may smell like the conjugate acid (e.g., acetates like acetic acid (vinegar) and cyanides like hydrogen cyanide (almonds)) or the conjugate base (e.g., ammonium salts like ammonia) of the component ions.

NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted

Atmosphere of Earth

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Layer of gases retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere.

Layer of gases retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere.

NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted
Composition of Earth's atmosphere by molecular count, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.0434% of the atmosphere (0.0442% at August 2021 concentrations ). Numbers are mainly from 2000, with and methane from 2019, and do not represent any single source.
Mean atmospheric water vapor
The mole fraction of the main constituents of the Earth's atmosphere as a function of height according to the MSIS-E-90 atmospheric model.
Earth's atmosphere Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.
orbiting in the thermosphere. Because of the angle of the photo, it appears to straddle the stratosphere and mesosphere that actually lie more than 250 km below. The orange layer is the troposphere, which gives way to the whitish stratosphere and then the blue mesosphere.
Temperature trends in two thick layers of the atmosphere as measured between January 1979 and December 2005 by microwave sounding units and advanced microwave sounding units on NOAA weather satellites. The instruments record microwaves emitted from oxygen molecules in the atmosphere. Source:
Temperature and mass density against altitude from the NRLMSISE-00 standard atmosphere model (the eight dotted lines in each "decade" are at the eight cubes 8, 27, 64, ..., 729)
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light.
Distortive effect of atmospheric refraction upon the shape of the sun at the horizon.
An idealised view of three pairs of large circulation cells.
Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years

The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

There were probably simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), notably water vapor, methane and ammonia.

A simulation of liquids with different viscosities. The liquid on the left has lower viscosity than the liquid on the right.

Viscosity

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Measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate.

Measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate.

A simulation of liquids with different viscosities. The liquid on the left has lower viscosity than the liquid on the right.
Illustration of a planar Couette flow. Since the shearing flow is opposed by friction between adjacent layers of fluid (which are in relative motion), a force is required to sustain the motion of the upper plate. The relative strength of this force is a measure of the fluid's viscosity.
In a general parallel flow, the shear stress is proportional to the gradient of the velocity.
Viscosity, the slope of each line, varies among materials.
Common glass viscosity curves
In the University of Queensland pitch drop experiment, pitch has been dripping slowly through a funnel since 1927, at a rate of one drop roughly every decade. In this way the viscosity of pitch has been determined to be approximately 230 billion (2.3) times that of water.
Honey being drizzled

For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness": for example, syrup has a higher viscosity than water.

many pure fluids; a few examples are water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, benzene, and xenon.

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

Alkali metal

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The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

Not only do the alkali metals react with water, but also with proton donors like alcohols and phenols, gaseous ammonia, and alkynes, the last demonstrating the phenomenal degree of their reactivity.

Cesium hydroxide is formed when cesium interacts aggressively with water and ice (CsOH).

A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times

Microorganism

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Organism of microscopic size, which may exist in its single-celled form or as a colony of cells.

Organism of microscopic size, which may exist in its single-celled form or as a colony of cells.

A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to study microscopic organisms.
Lazzaro Spallanzani showed that boiling a broth stopped it from decaying.
Vardhmana Mahavira postulated the existence of microscopic creatures in the sixth century BC.
Louis Pasteur showed that Spallanzani's findings held even if air could enter through a filter that kept particles out.
Robert Koch showed that microorganisms caused disease.
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria magnified about 10,000x
Euglena mutabilis, a photosynthetic flagellate
A tetrad of Deinococcus radiodurans, a radioresistant extremophile bacterium
The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Hyella caespitosa (round shapes) with fungal hyphae (translucent threads) in the lichen Pyrenocollema halodytes
Wastewater treatment plants rely largely on microorganisms to oxidise organic matter.
A laboratory fermentation vessel
The eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium falciparum (spiky blue shapes), a causative agent of malaria, in human blood

These organisms are also common in soil and play a vital role in ammonia oxidation.

They are found in water, soil, air, as the microbiome of an organism, hot springs and even deep beneath the Earth's crust in rocks.

A hydroxide ion acting as a nucleophile in an SN2 reaction, converting a halogenoalkane into an alcohol

Nucleophile

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Chemical species that forms bonds by donating an electron pair.

Chemical species that forms bonds by donating an electron pair.

A hydroxide ion acting as a nucleophile in an SN2 reaction, converting a halogenoalkane into an alcohol

Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia), PR3.

Examples of oxygen nucleophiles are water (H2O), hydroxide anion, alcohols, alkoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and carboxylate anions.