A report on Ammonia

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

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Gasification

Hydrogen production

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Family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen gas.

Family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen gas.

Gasification
Illustrating inputs and outputs of steam reforming of natural gas, a process to produce hydrogen and CO2 greenhouse gas that may be captured with CCS
Illustrating inputs and outputs of methane pyrolysis, an efficient one-step process to produce hydrogen and no greenhouse gas
Illustrating inputs and outputs of electrolysis of water, for production of hydrogen and no greenhouse gas
H2 production cost ($-gge untaxed) at varying natural gas prices
An algae bioreactor for hydrogen production.
A microbial electrolysis cell
Nano-galvanic aluminum-based powder developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory

In 2020, roughly 87 million tons of hydrogen was produced worldwide for various uses, such as oil refining, and in the production of ammonia (NH3) (through the Haber process) and methanol (CH3OH) (through reduction of carbon monoxide [CO]), and also as a fuel in transportation.

Silver chloride crystals

Silver chloride

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.

Silver chloride crystals
Pyramidal crystals of AgCl
Silver chloride decomposes over time with exposure to UV light

AgCl dissolves in solutions containing ligands such as chloride, cyanide, triphenylphosphine, thiosulfate, thiocyanate and ammonia.

Protonation

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Fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes.

Fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes.

the protonation of ammonia in the formation of ammonium chloride from ammonia and hydrogen chloride:

Trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry

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Molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base, resembling a tetrahedron .

Molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base, resembling a tetrahedron .

Phosphine, an example of a molecule with a trigonal pyramidal geometry.
The electron pair arrangement of ammonia is tetrahedral:<ref>{{cite web |title=NH3 Electron geometry |url=https://topblogtenz.com/ammonia-nh3-lewis-structure-molecular-geometry-shape-bond-angle/}}</ref> the two lone electrons are shown in yellow, the hydrogen atoms in white
The molecular geometry can be inferred from the electron pair arrangement, showing that ammonia has trigonal pyramidal geometry.

The nitrogen in ammonia has 5 valence electrons and bonds with three hydrogen atoms to complete the octet.

Carl Bosch

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German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.

German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.

Painting by Hermann Groeber: Der Aufsichtsrat der 1925 gegründeten I.G. Farben AG, Carl Bosch and Carl Duisberg (in front sitting), Edmund ter Meer (third person from right with newspaper)
Bosch's grave in Heidelberg
49.39616°N, 8.69257°W

Also, cheap and safe means had to be developed to clean and process the product ammonia.

The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen

Liver

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Major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth.

Major organ only found in vertebrates which performs many essential biological functions such as detoxification of the organism, and the synthesis of proteins and biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth.

The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen
The liver, viewed from above, showing the left and right lobes separated by the falciform ligament
The liver, viewed from below, surface showing four lobes and the impressions
Impressions of the liver
Cells, ducts, and blood vessels
Hilum of the liver, circled in yellow
Shape of human liver in animation, with eight Couinaud segments labelled
CT scan showing an adult liver in the axial plane.
Adult ultrasound showing the right lobe of the liver and right kidney.
Biliary tract
Left lobe liver tumor
After resection of left lobe liver tumor
Maksalaatikko, a Finnish liver casserole
19th century drinking scene in Kordofan, home to the Humr tribe, who made a drink from giraffe liver. Plate from Le Désert et le Soudan by Stanislas d'Escayrac de Lauture.
Sheep's liver
Microscopic anatomy of the liver
Types of capillaries–sinusoid on right
alt=3D Medical Animation Still Shot Depicting parts of liver|3D Medical Animation Still Shot Depicting parts of liver
thumb|left|Liver veins
thumb|right|Diagram of liver, lobule, and portal tract and their inter-relations
Axial CT image showing anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the subcapsular anterior surface of the liver.<ref name="Sheporaitis">{{cite journal|pmid=9843288|year=1998|last1=Sheporaitis|first1=L|last2=Freeny|first2=PC|title=Hepatic and portal surface veins: A new anatomic variant revealed during abdominal CT|volume=171|issue=6|pages=1559–1564|doi=10.2214/ajr.171.6.9843288|journal=AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology}}</ref>
Maximum intensity projection (MIP) CT image as viewed anteriorly showing the anomalous hepatic veins coursing on the anterior surface of the liver
Lateral MIP view in the same patient
A CT scan in which the liver and portal vein are shown.
MDCT image. Arterial anatomy contraindicated for liver donation
MDCT image. Portal venous anatomy contraindicated for liver donation
MDCT image. 3D image created by MDCT can clearly visualize the liver, measure the liver volume, and plan the dissection plane to facilitate the liver transplantation procedure.
Phase contrast CT image. Contrast is perfusing the right liver but not the left due to a left portal vein thrombus.

The liver converts ammonia into urea as part of the ornithine cycle or the urea cycle, and the urea is excreted in the urine.

Olin Raschig process

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Chemical process for the production of hydrazine.

Chemical process for the production of hydrazine.

The main steps in this process, patented by German chemist Friedrich Raschig in 1906 and one of three reactions named after him, are the formation of monochloramine from ammonia and hypochlorite, and the subsequent reaction of monochloramine with ammonia towards hydrazine.

Structure of the FeMo cofactor showing the sites of binding to nitrogenase (the amino acids cys and his).

Nitrogenase

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Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria) and rhizobacteria.

Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria) and rhizobacteria.

Structure of the FeMo cofactor showing the sites of binding to nitrogenase (the amino acids cys and his).
Figure 1: Nitrogenase with key catalytic sites highlighted. There are two sets of catalytic sites within each nitrogenase enzyme.
Figure 2: Nitrogenase with one set of metal clusters magnified. Electrons travel from the Fe-S cluster (yellow) to the P cluster (red), and end at the FeMo-co (orange).
Figure 3: Key catalytic sites within nitrogenase. Atoms are colored by element. Top: Fe-S Cluster Middle: P Cluster Bottom: FeMo-co
Figure 4: Lowe-Thorneley kinetic model for reduction of nitrogen to ammonia by nitrogenase.
Figure 5: Distal vs. alternating mechanistic pathways for nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase.
Figure 6: Amino acid residues of nitrogenase that interact with MgATP during catalysis.

These enzymes are responsible for the reduction of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3).

Reaction mechanism of the Birch reduction

Birch reduction

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Organic reaction that is used to convert arenes to cyclohexadienes.

Organic reaction that is used to convert arenes to cyclohexadienes.

Reaction mechanism of the Birch reduction
Birch R 2 startAnimGif
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The Birch reduction
naphthalene Birch Reduction
The Benkeser reaction
Modified Benkeser reduction

The reaction is named after the Australian chemist Arthur Birch and involves the organic reduction of aromatic rings in an amine solvent (traditionally liquid ammonia) with an alkali metal (traditionally sodium) and a proton source (traditionally an alcohol).

BMA process

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The BMA process or Degussa process is a chemical process developed by the German chemical company Degussa for the production of hydrogen cyanide from methane and ammonia in presence of a platinum catalyst.