A report on Ammonia

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

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Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide

Nitric acid

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Inorganic compound with the formula HNO3.

Inorganic compound with the formula HNO3.

Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Two major resonance representations of HNO3
Nitric acid in a laboratory

Upon adding a base such as ammonia, the color turns orange.

Ammonium nitrate

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3.

Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NH4NO3 + CaCO3

Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014

Jupiter

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Fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

Fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014
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Jupiter's diameter is one order of magnitude smaller (×0.10045) than that of the Sun, and one order of magnitude larger (×10.9733) than that of Earth. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.
Diagram of Jupiter, its interior, surface features, rings, and inner moons.
Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager 1, showing the motion of atmospheric bands and circulation of the Great Red Spot. Recorded over 32 days with one photograph taken every 10 hours (once per Jovian day). See [[:File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 max quality.ogv|full size video]].
Close up of the Great Red Spot imaged by the Juno spacecraft in April 2018
The Great Red Spot is decreasing in size (May 15, 2014)
Jupiter (red) completes one orbit of the Sun (centre) for every 11.86 orbits by Earth (blue)
A rotation time-lapse of Jupiter over 3 hours
Model in the Almagest of the longitudinal motion of Jupiter (☉) relative to Earth (🜨)
Galileo Galilei, discoverer of the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as Galilean moons
Infrared image of Jupiter taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope
Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini
A photograph of Jupiter taken by the Juno spacecraft, at the end of a close flyby
(September 2018)
Jupiter, as seen by the Juno spacecraft
(February 12, 2019)
The rings of Jupiter
Diagram showing the Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt
Hubble image taken on July 23, 2009, showing a blemish about 5000 miles long left by the 2009 Jupiter impact event.
Jupiter, woodcut from a 1550 edition of Guido Bonatti's Liber Astronomiae
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Infrared view of Jupiter, imaged by the Gemini North telescope in Hawaiʻi on January 11, 2017
Jupiter imaged in visible light by the Hubble Space Telescope on January 11, 2017
Ultraviolet view of Jupiter, imaged by Hubble on January 11, 2017<ref>{{cite web|title=By Jove! Jupiter Shows Its Stripes and Colors|publisher=National Science Foundation|website=NOIRLab|date=May 11, 2021|url=https://noirlab.edu/public/news/noirlab2116/|access-date=June 17, 2021}}</ref>
This image of Jupiter and Europa, taken by Hubble on 25 August 2020, was captured when the planet was 653 million kilometres from Earth.<ref>{{cite web|title=Hubble Finds Evidence of Persistent Water Vapour Atmosphere on Europa|website=ESA Hubble|publisher=European Space Agency|date=October 14, 2021|url=https://esahubble.org/news/heic2111/|access-date=October 26, 2021}}</ref>
Jupiter with its moon Europa on the left. Earth's diameter is 11 times smaller than Jupiter, and 4 times larger than Europa.
Formation of Oval BA from three white ovals
Orbit of Jupiter and other outer Solar System planets
Jupiter and four Galilean moons seen through an amateur telescope
Galileo's original observation note of Jupiter moons
Jupiter viewed in infrared by JWST
(July 14, 2022)
Image of Jupiter and its radiation belts in radio
Galileo in preparation for mating with the rocket, 2000
Juno preparing for testing in a rotation stand, 2011
Brown spots mark Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9's impact sites on Jupiter

The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapour, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds.

Ammonium chloride pyrolyses and reforms into ammonium chloride smoke after cooling.

Ammonium chloride

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Inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

Inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

Ammonium chloride pyrolyses and reforms into ammonium chloride smoke after cooling.
Ammonium chloride crystal(s)

It is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

Base (chemistry)

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In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases.

Soaps are weak bases formed by the reaction of fatty acids with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Ammonia fumes from aqueous ammonium hydroxide (in test tube) reacting with hydrochloric acid (in beaker) to produce ammonium chloride (white smoke).
Sodium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide

However, there are also other Brønsted bases which accept protons, such as aqueous solutions of ammonia (NH3) or its organic derivatives (amines).

Monochloramine

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Chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl.

Chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl.

Together with dichloramine (NHCl2) and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), it is one of the three chloramines of ammonia.

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)

Uranus

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Seventh planet from the Sun.

Seventh planet from the Sun.

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
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Simulated Earth view of Uranus from 1986 to 2030, from southern summer solstice in 1986 to equinox in 2007 and northern summer solstice in 2028.
Size comparison of Earth and Uranus
Diagram of the interior of Uranus
Uranus's atmosphere taken during the Outer Planet Atmosphere Legacy (OPAL) program.
Aurorae on Uranus taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) installed on Hubble.
The magnetic field of Uranus
(animated; 25 March 2020)
The first dark spot observed on Uranus. Image obtained by the HST ACS in 2006.
Uranus in 2005. Rings, southern collar and a bright cloud in the northern hemisphere are visible (HST ACS image).
Major moons of Uranus in order of increasing distance (left to right), at their proper relative sizes and albedos (collage of Voyager 2 photographs)
Uranus's aurorae against its equatorial rings, imaged by the Hubble telescope. Unlike the aurorae of Earth and Jupiter, those of Uranus are not in line with its poles, due to its lopsided magnetic field.
Crescent Uranus as imaged by Voyager 2 while en route to Neptune

Uranus's atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide

Lone pair

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Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide
Lone pairs in ammonia (A), water (B), and hydrogen chloride (C)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Lone pair trends in group 14 triple bonds
The symmetry-adapted and hybridized lone pairs of H2O

A single lone pair can be found with atoms in the nitrogen group, such as nitrogen in ammonia.

Photograph taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989

Neptune

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Eighth planet from the Sun and the farthest known solar planet.

Eighth planet from the Sun and the farthest known solar planet.

Photograph taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989
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Galileo Galilei
Urbain Le Verrier
A size comparison of Neptune and Earth
Combined colour and near-infrared image of Neptune, showing bands of methane in its atmosphere, and four of its moons, Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, and Despina
Bands of high-altitude clouds cast shadows on Neptune's lower cloud deck.
The Great Dark Spot (top), Scooter (middle white cloud), and the Small Dark Spot (bottom), with contrast exaggerated.
Four images taken a few hours apart with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3
Neptune (red arc) completes one orbit around the Sun (centre) for every 164.79 orbits of Earth. The light blue object represents Uranus.
A diagram showing the major orbital resonances in the Kuiper belt caused by Neptune: the highlighted regions are the 2:3 resonance (plutinos), the nonresonant "classical belt" (cubewanos), and the 1:2 resonance (twotinos).
A simulation showing the outer planets and Kuiper belt: a) before Jupiter and Saturn reached a 2:1 resonance; b) after inward scattering of Kuiper belt objects following the orbital shift of Neptune; c) after ejection of scattered Kuiper belt bodies by Jupiter
Natural-colour view of Neptune with Proteus (top), Larissa (lower right), and Despina (left), from the Hubble Space Telescope
Neptune's moon Proteus
A composite Hubble image showing Hippocamp with other previously discovered inner moons in Neptune's ring system
Neptune's rings
In 2018, the European Southern Observatory developed unique laser-based methods to get clear and high-resolution images of Neptune from the surface of Earth.
A Voyager 2 mosaic of Triton
The appearance of a Northern Great Dark Spot in 2018 is evidence of a huge storm brewing.<ref>{{cite web |title=A storm is coming |url=https://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1907a/ |website=spacetelescope.org |access-date=19 February 2019 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190220062857/https://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1907a/ |archive-date=20 February 2019 |url-status=live }}</ref>
The Northern Great Dark Spot and a smaller companion storm imaged by Hubble in 2020<ref>{{cite web|url=https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2020/news-2020-59.html|title=Dark Storm on Neptune Reverses Direction, Possibly Shedding Fragment|author1=Michael H. Wong|author2=Amy Simon|publisher=Hubblesite|date=15 December 2020|access-date=25 December 2020|archive-date=25 December 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201225153808/https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2020/news-2020-59.html|url-status=live}}</ref>
The Great Dark Spot, as imaged by Voyager 2
Neptune's shrinking vortex<ref>{{cite web|title=Neptune's shrinking vortex|url=http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1808a/|website=spacetelescope.org|access-date=19 February 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180219125043/http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1808a/|archive-date=19 February 2018|url-status=live}}</ref>
Physical and chemical composition of Neptune's interior

Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, though it contains a higher proportion of ices such as water, ammonia and methane.

A plant in Bangladesh that produces urea fertilizer.

Urea

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Organic compound with chemical formula CO2.

Organic compound with chemical formula CO2.

A plant in Bangladesh that produces urea fertilizer.
Urea plant using ammonium carbamate briquettes, Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, ca. 1930

The liver forms it by combining two ammonia molecules (NH3) with a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule in the urea cycle.