Ammonia

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

156 related topics

Alpha

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide

Lone pair

Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Sometimes called an unshared pair or non-bonding pair.

Lone pairs (shown as pairs of dots) in the Lewis structure of hydroxide
Lone pairs in ammonia (A), water (B), and hydrogen chloride (C)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Lone pair trends in group 14 triple bonds
The symmetry-adapted and hybridized lone pairs of H2O

A single lone pair can be found with atoms in the nitrogen group, such as nitrogen in ammonia.

Sample of human urine

Urine

Liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals.

Liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals.

Sample of human urine
The chemical structure of urea
Urine under the microscope
Medical experts have long connected urine colour with certain medical conditions. A medieval chart showing the medical implications of different urine color
A Doctor Examining Urine. Trophime Bigot.
Urine of pregnant women in the first trimester is collected by a company which purifies the fertility hormone hCG from it (Ede, the Netherlands)
Urine after four months of storage, ready to be used in gardening activities (note the colour and turbidity change compared to fresh human urine).
Fresh human urine after excretion
Medieval Welsh text from the Red Book of Hergest on uroscopy, called Ansoddau’r Trwnc (the Qualities of Urine). Opening lines (translated):
Since it is through the qualities of the urine that a person's faults and his dangers and his diseases and his illness can be identified...
Image of two facing pages of the illuminated manuscript of "Isagoge", fols. 42b and 43a. On the top of the left hand page is an illuminated letter "D" - initial of "De urinarum differencia negocium" (The matter of the differences of urines). Inside the letter is a picture of a master on bench pointing at a raised flask while lecturing on the "Book on urines" of Theophilus. The right hand page is only shown in part. On its very bottom is an illuminated letter "U" - initial of "Urina ergo est colamentum sanguinis" (Urine is the filtrate of the blood). Inside the letter is a picture of a master holding up a flask while explaining the diagnostic significance of urine to a student or a patient. HMD Collection, MS E 78.
Dark urine due to low fluid intake.
Dark red urine due to blood (hematuria).
Dark red urine due to choluria.
Pinkish urine due to consumption of beetroots.
Green urine during long term infusion of the sedative propofol.

Sometime after leaving the body, urine may acquire a strong "fish-like" odor because of contamination with bacteria that break down urea into ammonia.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism

Metabolism

Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism
Structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a central intermediate in energy metabolism
Structure of a triacylglycerol lipid
This is a diagram depicting a large set of human metabolic pathways.
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Structure of the coenzyme acetyl-CoA.The transferable acetyl group is bonded to the sulfur atom at the extreme left.
The structure of iron-containing hemoglobin. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From.
A simplified outline of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
Mechanism of ATP synthase. ATP is shown in red, ADP and phosphate in pink and the rotating stalk subunit in black.
Plant cells (bounded by purple walls) filled with chloroplasts (green), which are the site of photosynthesis
Simplified version of the steroid synthesis pathway with the intermediates isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and squalene shown. Some intermediates are omitted for clarity.
Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1), which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of organisms from all three domains of life. Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some of the phyla included are shown around the tree.
Metabolic network of the Arabidopsis thaliana citric acid cycle. Enzymes and metabolites are shown as red squares and the interactions between them as black lines.
Aristotle's metabolism as an open flow model
Santorio Santorio in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medicina, first published 1614

These organisms can use hydrogen, reduced sulfur compounds (such as sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate), ferrous iron (Fe(II)) or ammonia as sources of reducing power and they gain energy from the oxidation of these compounds.

Structures and names of common heterocyclic compounds

Uric acid

Heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

Heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

Structures and names of common heterocyclic compounds

This involves a complex metabolic pathway that is energetically costly in comparison to processing of other nitrogenous wastes such as urea (from the urea cycle) or ammonia, but has the advantages of reducing water loss and preventing dehydration.

The red colored ferricyanide ion, one component of Prussian blue

Hydrogen cyanide

Chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

The red colored ferricyanide ion, one component of Prussian blue
The South Pole Vortex of Saturn's moon Titan is a giant swirling cloud of HCN (November 29, 2012).

Hydrogen cyanide forms in at least limited amounts from many combinations of hydrogen, carbon, and ammonia.

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)

Uranus

Seventh planet from the Sun.

Seventh planet from the Sun.

Photograph of Uranus in true colour (by Voyager 2 in 1986)
⛢
♅
Simulated Earth view of Uranus from 1986 to 2030, from southern summer solstice in 1986 to equinox in 2007 and northern summer solstice in 2028.
Size comparison of Earth and Uranus
Diagram of the interior of Uranus
Uranus's atmosphere taken during the Outer Planet Atmosphere Legacy (OPAL) program.
Aurorae on Uranus taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) installed on Hubble.
The magnetic field of Uranus
(animated; 25 March 2020)
The first dark spot observed on Uranus. Image obtained by the HST ACS in 2006.
Uranus in 2005. Rings, southern collar and a bright cloud in the northern hemisphere are visible (HST ACS image).
Major moons of Uranus in order of increasing distance (left to right), at their proper relative sizes and albedos (collage of Voyager 2 photographs)
Uranus's aurorae against its equatorial rings, imaged by the Hubble telescope. Unlike the aurorae of Earth and Jupiter, those of Uranus are not in line with its poles, due to its lopsided magnetic field.
Crescent Uranus as imaged by Voyager 2 while en route to Neptune

Uranus's atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.

Fluconazole, synthesized using hydrazine, is an antifungal medication.

Hydrazine

Inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4.

Inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4.

Fluconazole, synthesized using hydrazine, is an antifungal medication.
Anhydrous (pure, not in solution) hydrazine being loaded into the MESSENGER space probe. The technician is wearing a safety suit.

It is a simple pnictogen hydride, and is a colourless flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odour.

NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted

Atmosphere of Earth

Layer of gases retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere.

Layer of gases retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere.

NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted
Composition of Earth's atmosphere by molecular count, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.0434% of the atmosphere (0.0442% at August 2021 concentrations ). Numbers are mainly from 2000, with and methane from 2019, and do not represent any single source.
Mean atmospheric water vapor
The mole fraction of the main constituents of the Earth's atmosphere as a function of height according to the MSIS-E-90 atmospheric model.
Earth's atmosphere Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.
orbiting in the thermosphere. Because of the angle of the photo, it appears to straddle the stratosphere and mesosphere that actually lie more than 250 km below. The orange layer is the troposphere, which gives way to the whitish stratosphere and then the blue mesosphere.
Temperature trends in two thick layers of the atmosphere as measured between January 1979 and December 2005 by microwave sounding units and advanced microwave sounding units on NOAA weather satellites. The instruments record microwaves emitted from oxygen molecules in the atmosphere. Source:
Temperature and mass density against altitude from the NRLMSISE-00 standard atmosphere model (the eight dotted lines in each "decade" are at the eight cubes 8, 27, 64, ..., 729)
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light.
Distortive effect of atmospheric refraction upon the shape of the sun at the horizon.
An idealised view of three pairs of large circulation cells.
Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years

There were probably simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), notably water vapor, methane and ammonia.

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.

Mercury (element)

Chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

Chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.
Mercury-discharge spectral calibration lamp
The symbol for the planet Mercury (☿) has been used since ancient times to represent the element
Native mercury with cinnabar, Socrates mine, Sonoma County, California. Cinnabar sometimes alters to native mercury in the oxidized zone of mercury deposits.
The bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
Amalgam filling
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) mercury switch
Mercury manometer to measure pressure
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
EPA workers clean up residential mercury spill in 2004
The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

Mercury(II) salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia.

Photograph taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989

Neptune

Eighth and farthest-known Solar planet from the Sun.

Eighth and farthest-known Solar planet from the Sun.

Photograph taken by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1989
♆
Galileo Galilei
Urbain Le Verrier
A size comparison of Neptune and Earth
Combined colour and near-infrared image of Neptune, showing bands of methane in its atmosphere, and four of its moons, Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, and Despina
Bands of high-altitude clouds cast shadows on Neptune's lower cloud deck.
The Great Dark Spot (top), Scooter (middle white cloud), and the Small Dark Spot (bottom), with contrast exaggerated.
Four images taken a few hours apart with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3
Neptune (red arc) completes one orbit around the Sun (centre) for every 164.79 orbits of Earth. The light blue object represents Uranus.
A diagram showing the major orbital resonances in the Kuiper belt caused by Neptune: the highlighted regions are the 2:3 resonance (plutinos), the nonresonant "classical belt" (cubewanos), and the 1:2 resonance (twotinos).
A simulation showing the outer planets and Kuiper belt: a) before Jupiter and Saturn reached a 2:1 resonance; b) after inward scattering of Kuiper belt objects following the orbital shift of Neptune; c) after ejection of scattered Kuiper belt bodies by Jupiter
Natural-colour view of Neptune with Proteus (top), Larissa (lower right), and Despina (left), from the Hubble Space Telescope
Neptune's moon Proteus
A composite Hubble image showing Hippocamp with other previously discovered inner moons in Neptune's ring system
Neptune's rings
In 2018, the European Southern Observatory developed unique laser-based methods to get clear and high-resolution images of Neptune from the surface of Earth.
A Voyager 2 mosaic of Triton
The appearance of a Northern Great Dark Spot in 2018 is evidence of a huge storm brewing.<ref>{{cite web |title=A storm is coming |url=https://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1907a/ |website=spacetelescope.org |access-date=19 February 2019 |language=en |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190220062857/https://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1907a/ |archive-date=20 February 2019 |url-status=live }}</ref>
The Northern Great Dark Spot and a smaller companion storm imaged by Hubble in 2020<ref>{{cite web|url=https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2020/news-2020-59.html|title=Dark Storm on Neptune Reverses Direction, Possibly Shedding Fragment|author1=Michael H. Wong|author2=Amy Simon|publisher=Hubblesite|date=15 December 2020|access-date=25 December 2020|archive-date=25 December 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201225153808/https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2020/news-2020-59.html|url-status=live}}</ref>
The Great Dark Spot, as imaged by Voyager 2
Neptune's shrinking vortex<ref>{{cite web|title=Neptune's shrinking vortex|url=http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1808a/|website=spacetelescope.org|access-date=19 February 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180219125043/http://www.spacetelescope.org/images/potw1808a/|archive-date=19 February 2018|url-status=live}}</ref>

Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, though it contains a higher proportion of "ices" such as water, ammonia and methane.