A report on Ammonia

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

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Pfleger's synthesis of indigo dye.

Sodium amide

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Inorganic compound with the formula NaNH2.

Inorganic compound with the formula NaNH2.

Pfleger's synthesis of indigo dye.
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Sodium amide can be prepared by the reaction of sodium with ammonia gas, but it is usually prepared by the reaction in liquid ammonia using iron(III) nitrate as a catalyst.

Phosphine

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Colorless, flammable, highly toxic compound with the chemical formula PH3, classed as a pnictogen hydride.

Colorless, flammable, highly toxic compound with the chemical formula PH3, classed as a pnictogen hydride.

The dipole moment is 0.58 D, which increases with substitution of methyl groups in the series: CH3PH2, 1.10 D; (CH3)2PH, 1.23 D; (CH3)3P, 1.19 D. In contrast, the dipole moments of amines decrease with substitution, starting with ammonia, which has a dipole moment of 1.47 D. The low dipole moment and almost orthogonal bond angles lead to the conclusion that in PH3 the P−H bonds are almost entirely pσ(P) – sσ(H) and phosphorus 3s orbital contributes little to the bonding between phosphorus and hydrogen in this molecule.

The red colored ferricyanide ion, one component of Prussian blue

Hydrogen cyanide

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

Chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

The red colored ferricyanide ion, one component of Prussian blue
The South Pole Vortex of Saturn's moon Titan is a giant swirling cloud of HCN (November 29, 2012).

Hydrogen cyanide forms in at least limited amounts from many combinations of hydrogen, carbon, and ammonia.

Hexamethylenetetramine from Bayer (IG Farben)

Hexamethylenetetramine

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Heterocyclic organic compound with the formula 6N4.

Heterocyclic organic compound with the formula 6N4.

Hexamethylenetetramine from Bayer (IG Farben)

It is prepared industrially by combining formaldehyde and ammonia:

The de Lana-Terzi's vacuum airship (1670)

Lifting gas

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Gas that has a lower density than normal atmospheric gases and rises above them as a result.

Gas that has a lower density than normal atmospheric gases and rises above them as a result.

The de Lana-Terzi's vacuum airship (1670)
MAXIS: a balloon that has been able to reach a height of 36 km

Ammonia has been used as a lifting gas in balloons, but while inexpensive, it is relatively heavy (density 0.769 g/L at STP, average molecular mass 17.03 g/mol), poisonous, an irritant, and can damage some metals and plastics.

A water molecule, a commonly used example of polarity. Two charges are present with a negative charge in the middle (red shade), and a positive charge at the ends (blue shade).

Chemical polarity

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Separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end.

Separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole moment, with a negatively charged end and a positively charged end.

A water molecule, a commonly used example of polarity. Two charges are present with a negative charge in the middle (red shade), and a positive charge at the ends (blue shade).
A diagram showing the bond dipole moments of boron trifluoride. δ- shows an increase in negative charge and δ+ shows an increase in positive charge. Note that the dipole moments drawn in this diagram represent the shift of the valence electrons as the origin of the charge, which is opposite the direction of the actual electric dipole moment.
The water molecule is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, with respective electronegativities of 3.44 and 2.20. The electronegativity difference polarizes each H–O bond, shifting its electrons towards the oxygen (illustrated by red arrows). These effects add as vectors to make the overall molecule polar.
The ammonia molecule, NH3, is polar as a result of its molecular geometry. The red represents partially negatively charged regions.
Resonance Lewis structures of the ozone molecule
In a molecule of boron trifluoride, the trigonal planar arrangement of three polar bonds results in no overall dipole.
Carbon dioxide has two polar C-O bonds in a linear geometry.
In methane, the bonds are arranged symmetrically (in a tetrahedral arrangement) so there is no overall dipole.
This amphiphilic molecule has several polar groups (hydrophilic, water-loving) on the right side and a long nonpolar chain (lipophilic, fat-loving) at the left side. This gives it surfactant properties
A micelle{{snd}}the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain outside in the water phase, shielding the rest of the hydrophobic micelle. In this way, the small oil droplet becomes water-soluble.
Phospholipids are effective natural surfactants that have important biological functions
Cross section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids. They can form a micelle and are vital in forming cell membranes

Ammonia, NH3, is a molecule whose three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom).

The nitrate ion with the partial charges shown

Nitrate

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Polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.

Polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.

The nitrate ion with the partial charges shown
Canonical resonance structures for the nitrate ion
Sea surface nitrate from the World Ocean Atlas

Nitrates are produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria in the natural environment using ammonia or urea as a source of nitrogen and source of free energy.

Silver is extremely ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide.

Silver

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Chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47.

Chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47.

Silver is extremely ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide.
Silver(I) sulfide
The three common silver halide precipitates: from left to right, silver iodide, silver bromide, and silver chloride.
Crystals of silver nitrate
Structure of the diamminesilver(I) complex, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Different colors of silver–copper–gold alloys
Silver vase, circa 2400 BC
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 1490s
16th-century fresco painting of Judas being paid thirty pieces of silver for his betrayal of Jesus
Acanthite sample from the Imider mine in Morocco
A 2004 American Silver Eagle bullion coin, minted in .999 fine silver.
Embossed silver sarcophagus of Saint Stanislaus in the Wawel Cathedral was created in main centers of the 17th century European silversmithery - Augsburg and Gdańsk
17th century silverware
A tray of South Asian sweets, with some pieces covered with shiny silver vark
Proto-Elamite kneeling bull holding a spouted vessel; 3100–2900 BC; 16.3 x 6.3 x 10.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Ancient Egyptian figurine of Horus as falcon god with an Egyptian crown; circa 500 BC; silver and electrum; height: 26.9 cm; Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst (Munich, Germany)
Ancient Greek tetradrachm; 315–308 BC; diameter: 2.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ancient Greek gilded bowl; 2nd–1st century BC; height: 7.6 cm, dimeter: 14.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman plate; 1st–2nd century AD; height: 0.1 cm, diameter: 12.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman bust of Serapis; 2nd century; 15.6 x 9.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Auricular basin with scenes from the story of Diana and Actaeon; 1613; length: 50 cm, height: 6 cm, width: 40 cm; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
French Rococo tureen; 1749; height: 26.3 cm, width: 39 cm, depth: 24 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Rococo coffeepot; 1757; height: 29.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Neoclassical ewer; 1784–1785; height: 32.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Neo-Rococo coffeepot; 1845; overall: 32 x 23.8 x 15.4 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
French Art Nouveau dessert spoons; circa 1890; Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum (New York City)
Art Nouveau jardinière; circa 1905–1910; height: 22 cm, width: 47 cm, depth: 22.5 cm; Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Hand mirror; 1906; height: 20.7 cm, weight: 88 g; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
Mystery watch; ca. 1889; diameter: 5.4 cm, depth: 1.8 cm; Musée d'Horlogerie of Le Locle, (Switzerland)
Price of silver 2009-2022

The resulting adduct can be decomposed with ammonia to release the free alkene.

Tollens' test for aldehyde: left side positive (silver mirror), right side negative

Tollens' reagent

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Chemical reagent used to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones along with some alpha-hydroxy ketones which can tautomerize into aldehydes.

Chemical reagent used to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones along with some alpha-hydroxy ketones which can tautomerize into aldehydes.

Tollens' test for aldehyde: left side positive (silver mirror), right side negative
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) complex

The reagent consists of a solution of silver nitrate, ammonia and some sodium hydroxide (to maintain a basic pH of the reagent solution).

NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted

Atmosphere of Earth

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Layer of gases retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere.

Layer of gases retained by Earth's gravity that surrounds the planet and forms its planetary atmosphere.

NASA photo showing Earth's atmosphere at sunset, with Earth silhouetted
Composition of Earth's atmosphere by molecular count, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.0434% of the atmosphere (0.0442% at August 2021 concentrations ). Numbers are mainly from 2000, with and methane from 2019, and do not represent any single source.
Mean atmospheric water vapor
The mole fraction of the main constituents of the Earth's atmosphere as a function of height according to the MSIS-E-90 atmospheric model.
Earth's atmosphere Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.
orbiting in the thermosphere. Because of the angle of the photo, it appears to straddle the stratosphere and mesosphere that actually lie more than 250 km below. The orange layer is the troposphere, which gives way to the whitish stratosphere and then the blue mesosphere.
Temperature trends in two thick layers of the atmosphere as measured between January 1979 and December 2005 by microwave sounding units and advanced microwave sounding units on NOAA weather satellites. The instruments record microwaves emitted from oxygen molecules in the atmosphere. Source:
Temperature and mass density against altitude from the NRLMSISE-00 standard atmosphere model (the eight dotted lines in each "decade" are at the eight cubes 8, 27, 64, ..., 729)
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light.
Distortive effect of atmospheric refraction upon the shape of the sun at the horizon.
An idealised view of three pairs of large circulation cells.
Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years

There were probably simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), notably water vapor, methane and ammonia.