A report on Ammonia

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

- Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

159 related topics with Alpha

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Ammonium sulfate

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Inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.

Inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.

Heating at higher temperatures results in decomposition into ammonia, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and water.

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.

Mercury (element)

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Chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

Chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.
Mercury-discharge spectral calibration lamp
The symbol for the planet Mercury (☿) has been used since ancient times to represent the element
Native mercury with cinnabar, Socrates mine, Sonoma County, California. Cinnabar sometimes alters to native mercury in the oxidized zone of mercury deposits.
The bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
Amalgam filling
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) mercury switch
Mercury manometer to measure pressure
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
EPA workers clean up residential mercury spill in 2004
The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

Mercury(II) salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia.

Old drawing of a chloralkali process plant (Edgewood, Maryland)

Chloralkali process

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Industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions.

Industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions.

Old drawing of a chloralkali process plant (Edgewood, Maryland)
Cell room of a chlor-alkali plant ca. 1920
Basic membrane cell used in the electrolysis of brine. At the anode (A), chloride (Cl−) is oxidized to chlorine. The ion-selective membrane (B) allows the counterion Na+ to freely flow across, but prevents anions such as hydroxide (OH−) and chloride from diffusing across. At the cathode (C), water is reduced to hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The net process is the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of NaCl into industrially useful products sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and chlorine gas.
Mercury cell for chloralkali process

Much of this hydrogen is used to produce hydrochloric acid, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, or is burned for power and/or steam production.

A burette and Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask) being used for an acid–base titration.

Titration

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Common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of an identified analyte (a substance to be analyzed).

Common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of an identified analyte (a substance to be analyzed).

A burette and Erlenmeyer flask (conical flask) being used for an acid–base titration.
Analysis of soil samples by titration.
A typical titration curve of a diprotic acid titrated with a strong base. Shown here is oxalic acid titrated with sodium hydroxide. Both equivalence points are visible.
Methyl orange
Phenolphthalein, a commonly used indicator in acid and base titration.
Color of iodometric titration mixture before (left) and after (right) the end point.
An elementary pH meter that can be used to monitor titration reactions.
A titration is demonstrated to secondary school students.

Kjeldahl method: a measure of nitrogen content in a sample. Organic nitrogen is digested into ammonia with sulfuric acid and potassium sulfate. Finally, ammonia is back titrated with boric acid and then sodium carbonate.

Micrograph of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, as may be seen in hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy

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Altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.

Altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.

Micrograph of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, as may be seen in hepatic encephalopathy
Ball and stick model of ammonia; one nitrogen atom with three hydrogen atoms. Accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream is associated with hepatic encephalopathy.
Micrograph of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, as may be seen in hepatic encephalopathy
Micrograph showing liver cirrhosis, a condition that often precedes hepatic encephalopathy. Trichrome stain.

The underlying mechanism is believed to involve the buildup of ammonia in the blood, a substance that is normally removed by the liver.

Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II)

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Inorganic compound consisting of potassium cations and the tetraiodomercurate(II) anion.

Inorganic compound consisting of potassium cations and the tetraiodomercurate(II) anion.

It is mainly used as Nessler's reagent, a 0.09 mol/L solution of potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) (K2[HgI4]) in 2.5 mol/L potassium hydroxide, used to detect ammonia.

Claude Louis Berthollet

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Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.

Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.

Lavoisier and Berthollet, Chimistes Celebres, Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Trading Card, 1929
Claude Louis Berthollet statue in Annecy, France

Berthollet first determined the elemental composition of the gas ammonia, in 1785.

The two canonical structures of, which contribute to the resonance hybrid for the nitrite ion

Nitrite

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The nitrite ion has the chemical formula.

The nitrite ion has the chemical formula.

The two canonical structures of, which contribute to the resonance hybrid for the nitrite ion
Dimensions of trans-HONO (from the microwave spectrum)
A schematic representation of the microbial nitrogen cycle. ANAMMOX is anaerobic ammonium oxidation, DNRA is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and COMMAMOX is complete ammonium oxidation.
A nitrite ester

Nitrite can be reduced to nitric oxide or ammonia by many species of bacteria.

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.

Climate change mitigation

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Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects.

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects.

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Multiple pathways exist to limit climate change to 1.5 °C or 2 °C in the context of the temperature goals set forth in the Paris Agreement.
Global greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2016. For climate change mitigation goals, pathways and mechanisms to effectively transform all sectors have to be developed and implemented at a rapid rate.
Global CO2 emissions by region from fossil fuels combustion, 2019 (not accounting for extradomestic production / imports-footprints)
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
In the European Investment Bank Climate Survey EU citizens said that in Europe, energy should be the most prioritised area of action against climate change.
About 58% of emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.
(A) Untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, a significant sink of carbon.
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Alstom Citadis (left) and Eurotram (right) trams in Strasbourg on grassed track
Battery electric bus in Montreal
Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Managed grazing methods are argued to be able to restore grasslands, thereby significantly decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels.
A matrix of the progress in the adoption of management practices and approaches
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars, and canal transport may represent a positive option for certain types of freight in the 21st century.
Carbon emission trade - allowance prices from 2008
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey 2020 found that firms with active climate policies invest more in energy efficiency.
The European Investment Bank's Investment Survey also found that Western and Northern European firms are more likely to invest in climate mitigation.
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.
Physical risks of climate change top the list of business concerns for US and EU firms.
Since 1950, world population has tripled.
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.
A photo of the September 2019 climate strikes
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation
Emission responsibility allotments by country/region and industry
Historical and future temperature projections showing importance of mitigating short-lived climate pollutants like methane
Potential emissions from large fossil fuel projects 'carbon bombs' per country
Distribution of committed emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves.
Five broad food policy categories
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019) 
Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

Hydrogen may be useful for seasonal energy storage. The low efficiency of 30% of the reconversion to electricity must improve dramatically before hydrogen storage can offer the same overall energy efficiency as batteries. Thermal energy in the conversion process can be used for district heating. For the electricity grid a German study estimated high costs of 0.176 €/KWh for reconversion concluding that substituting the electricity grid expansion entirely with hydrogen reconversion systems does not make sense from an economic standpoint. The concept of solar hydrogen is discussed for remote desert projects where grid connections to demand centers are not available. Because it has more energy per unit volume sometimes it may be better to use hydrogen in ammonia.

A hydroxide ion acting as a nucleophile in an SN2 reaction, converting a halogenoalkane into an alcohol

Nucleophile

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Chemical species that forms bonds by donating an electron pair.

Chemical species that forms bonds by donating an electron pair.

A hydroxide ion acting as a nucleophile in an SN2 reaction, converting a halogenoalkane into an alcohol

Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia), PR3.