A report on Amnesia

Amnesie

Deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

- Amnesia
Amnesie

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Soldier wounded at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862.

Head injury

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Any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.

Any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.

Soldier wounded at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862.
coup bruise

A slightly greater injury is associated with both anterograde and retrograde amnesia (inability to remember events before or after the injury).

Blackout (drug-related amnesia)

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Phenomenon caused by the intake of any substance or medication in which short-term and long-term memory creation is impaired, therefore causing a complete inability to recall the past.

Phenomenon caused by the intake of any substance or medication in which short-term and long-term memory creation is impaired, therefore causing a complete inability to recall the past.

Blackouts are frequently described as having effects similar to that of anterograde amnesia, in which the subject cannot recall any events after the event that caused amnesia.

Lobes of the human brain (temporal lobe is shown in green)

Temporal lobe

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One of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

One of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

Lobes of the human brain (temporal lobe is shown in green)
Animation showing the position of the human left temporal lobe

Amnesia, Korsakoff syndrome, Klüver–Bucy syndrome

A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain injury showing an empty space where the damage occurred, marked by the arrow

Brain damage

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Destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

Destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain injury showing an empty space where the damage occurred, marked by the arrow
A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain injury showing an empty space where the damage occurred, marked by the arrow
A Coup injury occurs under the site of impact with an object, and a contrecoup injury occurs on the side opposite the area that was hit.

Due to loss of blood flow or damaged tissue, sustained during the injury, amnesia and aphasia may become permanent, and apraxia has been documented in patients.

MECTA spECTrum 5000Q with electroencephalography (EEG) in a modern ECT suite

Electroconvulsive therapy

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Psychiatric treatment where a generalized seizure (without muscular convulsions) is electrically induced to manage refractory mental disorders.

Psychiatric treatment where a generalized seizure (without muscular convulsions) is electrically induced to manage refractory mental disorders.

MECTA spECTrum 5000Q with electroencephalography (EEG) in a modern ECT suite
Electroconvulsive therapy machine on display at Glenside Museum in Bristol, England
ECT device produced by Siemens and used for example at the Asyl psychiatric hospital in Kristiansand, Norway from the 1960s to the 1980s
An illustration depicting electroconvulsive therapy
ECT machine from before 1960.
A Bergonic chair, a device "for giving general electric treatment for psychological effect, in psycho-neurotic cases", according to original photo description. World War I era.

The acute effects of ECT can include amnesia, both retrograde (for events occurring before the treatment) and anterograde (for events occurring after the treatment).

Fugue state

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Mental and behavioral disorder that is classified variously as a dissociative disorder, a conversion disorder, and a somatic symptom disorder.

Mental and behavioral disorder that is classified variously as a dissociative disorder, a conversion disorder, and a somatic symptom disorder.

The disorder is a rare psychiatric phenomenon characterized by reversible amnesia for one's identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

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Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

Benzodiazepines are effective as medication given a couple of hours before surgery to relieve anxiety. They also produce amnesia, which can be useful, as patients may not remember unpleasantness from the procedure. They are also used in patients with dental phobia as well as some ophthalmic procedures like refractive surgery; although such use is controversial and only recommended for those who are very anxious. Midazolam is the most commonly prescribed for this use because of its strong sedative actions and fast recovery time, as well as its water solubility, which reduces pain upon injection. Diazepam and lorazepam are sometimes used. Lorazepam has particularly marked amnesic properties that may make it more effective when amnesia is the desired effect.

MRI scan image shows high signal in the temporal lobes and right inferior frontal gyrus in someone with HSV encephalitis.

Encephalitis

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Inflammation of the brain.

Inflammation of the brain.

MRI scan image shows high signal in the temporal lobes and right inferior frontal gyrus in someone with HSV encephalitis.
Rabies virus
Spinal tap on a newborn
Encephalitis deaths per million persons in 2012

Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing.

Phineas Gage exemplifies an individual who suffered frontal lobe damage. A large iron rod was driven through his frontal left lobe effecting changes on his personality.

Source amnesia

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Inability to remember where, when or how previously learned information has been acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge.

Inability to remember where, when or how previously learned information has been acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge.

Phineas Gage exemplifies an individual who suffered frontal lobe damage. A large iron rod was driven through his frontal left lobe effecting changes on his personality.

This branch of amnesia is associated with the malfunctioning of one's explicit memory.

Equipment used for anaesthesia in the operating theatre

General anaesthesia

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Medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of either intravenous or inhalational general anaesthetic medications, often in combination with an analgesic and neuromuscular blocking agent.

Medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of either intravenous or inhalational general anaesthetic medications, often in combination with an analgesic and neuromuscular blocking agent.

Equipment used for anaesthesia in the operating theatre
Syringes prepared with medications that are expected to be used during an operation under general anaesthesia maintained by sevoflurane gas:
 - Propofol, a hypnotic
 - Ephedrine, in case of hypotension
 - Fentanyl, for analgesia
 - Atracurium, for neuromuscular block
 - Glycopyrronium bromide (here under trade name Robinul), reducing secretions
Anaesthetized patient in postoperative recovery.

A variety of drugs may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, loss of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system, and in some cases paralysis of skeletal muscles.