A report on Amnesia

Amnesie

Deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

- Amnesia
Amnesie

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Overall

This image shows a priming web built from different types of priming. The lines in this web indicate associations that an individual might have. If two words are more closely linked in the web, then they are more likely to be more quickly recognized when primed with a nearby word. The dotted lines indicate morpheme primes, or primes from words that sound similar to each other, while the straight lines indicate semantic primes or words that have meanings or associations that relate to each other.

Priming (psychology)

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Phenomenon whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.

Phenomenon whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.

This image shows a priming web built from different types of priming. The lines in this web indicate associations that an individual might have. If two words are more closely linked in the web, then they are more likely to be more quickly recognized when primed with a nearby word. The dotted lines indicate morpheme primes, or primes from words that sound similar to each other, while the straight lines indicate semantic primes or words that have meanings or associations that relate to each other.
The extrastriate cortex (shown in orange and red) is believed to be involved in perceptual priming

Patients with amnesia are described as those who have suffered damage to their medial temporal lobe, resulting in the impairment of explicit recollection of everyday facts and events.

Sedative

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Substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

Substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

Sedatives can sometimes leave the patient with long-term or short-term amnesia.

Drug-induced amnesia

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Drug-induced amnesia is amnesia caused by drugs.

Lacunar amnesia

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Loss of memory about a specific event.

Loss of memory about a specific event.

This specific form of amnesia is caused by brain damage in the limbic system which is responsible for our memories and emotions.

Transient epileptic amnesia

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Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a rare but probably underdiagnosed neurological condition which manifests as relatively brief and generally recurring episodes of amnesia caused by underlying temporal lobe epilepsy.

The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory showing that human memory is divided into 3 separate components - sensory register (incoming sensory information), short-term store or working memory, and long-term store. Declarative memory, under the long-term store, is subdivided into semantic and episodic memory.

Semantic amnesia

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The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory showing that human memory is divided into 3 separate components - sensory register (incoming sensory information), short-term store or working memory, and long-term store. Declarative memory, under the long-term store, is subdivided into semantic and episodic memory.
Anatomy of the brain showing the different lobes - frontal, pareital, occipital, and temporal lobe. The medial temporal lobe, responsible for long-term memory, consists of the hippocampus and perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal neocortical regions.

Semantic amnesia is a type of amnesia that affects semantic memory and is primarily manifested through difficulties with language use and acquisition, recall of facts and general knowledge.

CT scan showing cerebral contusions, hemorrhage within the hemispheres, subdural hematoma, and skull fractures

Traumatic brain injury

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Intracranial injury, is an injury to the brain caused by an external force.

Intracranial injury, is an injury to the brain caused by an external force.

CT scan showing cerebral contusions, hemorrhage within the hemispheres, subdural hematoma, and skull fractures
CT scan Spread of the subdural hematoma (single arrows), midline shift (double arrows)
Unequal pupil size is potentially a sign of a serious brain injury.
Ricochet of the brain within the skull may account for the coup-contrecoup phenomenon.
MRI scan showing damage due to brain herniation after TBI
CT scan showing epidural hematoma (arrow)
Demonstration in 1912 of the Warren Safety Helmet, which was designed to protect pilots but has often been wrongly described as a football helmet.
Protective sports equipment such as helmets can partially protect athletes from head injury.
Physical therapy will commonly include muscle strength exercise.
The Amsterdam Gait Classification facilitates the assessment of the gait pattern in patients after a traumatic brain injury. It helps to facilitate communication in the interdisciplinary team between those affected, doctors, physiotherapists and orthotists.
Ankle-foot orthosis with dynamic functional elements, whose adjustable spring resistances in plantar and dorsiflexion can be separately adapted to the patient's gait. The orthosis is used to improve safety when standing and walking. (Designation of the orthosis according to the body parts included in the orthosis fitting: ankle and foot, English abbreviation: AFO for ankle-foot orthoses)
The relative risk of post-traumatic seizures increases with the severity of traumatic brain injury.
A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain injury showing an empty space where the damage occurred marked by the arrow.
Causes of TBI fatalities in the US
The Edwin Smith Papyrus
Phineas Gage with the tamping iron that entered his left cheek and emerged at the top of his head

Memory loss, the most common cognitive impairment among head-injured people, occurs in 20–79% of people with closed head trauma, depending on severity.

Thiamine

Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

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Combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff syndrome.

Combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff syndrome.

Thiamine
Axial MRI FLAIR image showing hyperintense signal in the mesial dorsal thalami, a common finding in Wernicke encephalopathy. This patient was nearly in coma when IV thiamine was started, he responded moderately well but was left with some Korsakoff type deficits.
Axial MRI B=1000 DWI image showing hyperintense signal indicative of restricted diffusion in the mesial dorsal thalami.
Axial MRI FLAIR image showing hyperintense signal in the periaqueductal gray matter and tectum of the dorsal midbrain.

The amnesia that is associated with this syndrome is a result of the atrophy in the structures of the diencephalon (the thalamus, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies), and is similar to amnesia that is presented as a result of other cases of damage to the medial temporal lobe.

Figure 1. Depiction of standard model

Ribot's law

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Hypothesized in 1881 by Théodule Ribot.

Hypothesized in 1881 by Théodule Ribot.

Figure 1. Depiction of standard model

Patients who incurred amnesia from a specific event such as an accident often also lost memory of the events leading up to the incident as well.

Repressed memory

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Controversial, and largely scientifically discredited, claim that memories for traumatic events may be stored in the unconscious mind and blocked from normal conscious recall.

Controversial, and largely scientifically discredited, claim that memories for traumatic events may be stored in the unconscious mind and blocked from normal conscious recall.

Amnesia is partial or complete loss of memory that goes beyond mere forgetting.