Amphetamine

BenzedrinespeedamphetaminesAmfetamineRacemic amphetamineamphetamine addictionα-MethylphenethylamineAmphetamine overdoseamphetamine phosphateamphetamine sulphate
Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.wikipedia
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Stimulant

stimulantspsychostimulantpsychostimulants
Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
The most frequently prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine.

Dextroamphetamine

Dexedrined-amphetamineDexamphetamine
Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine.
Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and an amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

History of Benzedrine

Benzedrine
The first amphetamine pharmaceutical was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions.
Benzedrine pills, colloquially referred to as bennies, is the brand name of the first pharmaceutical drug that contained amphetamine.

Adderall

Adderall XRamphetamine mixed saltsmixed amphetamine salts
Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine.
Adderall is a combination medication containing four salts of amphetamine.

Methylphenethylamine

monomethylated phenethylamine
Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Substituted phenethylamine

phenethylaminephenethylaminesphenethylamine class
Amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine class.
Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., dl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine DOM), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine MDA), appetite suppressants (e.g. phentermine), nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., levomethamphetamine and pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion and phenelzine), antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others.

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine.
Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use.

MDMA

ecstasyMethylenedioxymethamphetamineE
It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine.
It is often sold mixed with other substances such as ephedrine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine.

Methylphenidate

RitalinConcertaMethylin
Psychostimulants like methylphenidate and amphetamine are effective in treating ADHD because they increase neurotransmitter activity in these systems.
A 2015 review found that therapeutic doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate result in modest improvements in cognition, including working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control, in normal healthy adults; the cognition-enhancing effects of these drugs are known to occur through the indirect activation of both dopamine receptor D 1 and adrenoceptor α 2 in the prefrontal cortex.

Nootropic

nootropicscognitive enhancersmart drugs
Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant.

Tachycardia

fast heart rateincreased heart raterapid heart rate
Cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasovagal response, Raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet), and tachycardia (increased heart rate).

Monoamine releasing agent

releasing agentreleasereleaser
Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and release of dopamine in the central nervous system.
Some, such as exogenous phenethylamine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine, can also diffuse directly across the cell membrane to varying degrees.

Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscle
Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown.

Basal ganglia

basal nucleibasalbasal ganglia (BG)
Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.
A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamine, specific medications that are prescribed by a doctor, and nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal.

Conditioned place preference

aversionconditioned place ''aversionconditioned place aversion
Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses, meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously used amphetamine.
Humans have also been shown to develop conditioned place preferences; for example, people taking therapeutic doses of amphetamine develop a CPP for where they consumed the drug.

Substituted amphetamine

amphetaminesamphetaminesubstituted amphetamines
It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

Trace amine

trace aminestracetrace amine neuromodulator
As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body.
Trace aminergic hypo-function is particularly relevant to ADHD, since urinary and plasma phenethylamine concentrations are significantly lower in ADHD individuals relative to controls and the two most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD, amphetamine and methylphenidate, increase phenethylamine biosynthesis in treatment-responsive individuals with ADHD.

Levoamphetamine

L-amphetamineLevamfetamine L -amphetamine
Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine.
Levoamphetamine is the levorotatory stereoisomer of the amphetamine molecule.

Stimulant psychosis

amphetamine psychosispsychosisdrug-induced psychosis
Very high doses can result in psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use.
Stimulant psychosis is a mental disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, paranoid ideation, delusions, disorganized thinking, grossly disorganized behaviour) which involves and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.

Phenethylamine

phenylethylaminephenylethylaminesβ-phenethylamine
As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body.
Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs, which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), appetite suppressants (e.g. phentermine), nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion), antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others.

Lisdexamfetamine

Vyvanselisdexamfetamine dimesylatelisdexamphetamine
Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine.
The optical isomers of amphetamine, i.e., dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine, are TAAR1 agonists and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitors that can enter monoamine neurons; this allows them to release monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, among others) from their storage sites in the presynaptic neuron, as well as prevent the reuptake of these neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft.

Caudate nucleus

caudatecaudate nucleibilateral caudate nucleus
Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.
In a study involving rats given water-maze training, the caudate nucleus was discovered to enhance memory of visually cued training after amphetamine was infused post-training into the caudate.

Performance-enhancing substance

performance-enhancing drugsperformance-enhancing drugimprove physique and performance
Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opioids.
* Stimulants (e.g. caffeine, modafinil, amphetamine, methylphenidate)