Amphora

amphoraeneck amphoraamphorasbelly amphoraamphoresamphora-likeamphoreamphoræancient vesselphora
An amphora (Greek: ἀμφορεύς, amphoréus; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period.wikipedia
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Monte Testaccio

hill made of broken ''amphoraeSociety of Olive Oil Producers
At a breakage site in Rome, Testaccio, close to the Tiber, the fragments, later wetted with Calcium hydroxide (Calce viva), remained to create a hill now named Monte Testaccio, 45 m high and more than 1 kilometre in circumference.
Monte Testaccio (alternatively spelled Monte Testaceo; also known as Monte dei cocci) is an artificial mound in Rome composed almost entirely of testae (cocci), fragments of broken ancient Roman pottery, nearly all discarded amphorae dating from the time of the Roman Empire, some of which were labelled with tituli picti.

Package handle

handles
Where the pithos may have multiple small loops or lugs for fastening a rope harness, the amphora has two expansive handles joining the shoulder of the body and a long neck.
Some of these, such as amphora, date from the Neolithic period.

Shipwreck

shipwreckswreckwrecked
Amphorae are of great use to maritime archaeologists, as they often indicate the age of a shipwreck and the geographic origin of the cargo.
These creatures affect the primary state because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for example, or any other hollow places.

Testaccio

of the same nameR XX Testaccio
At a breakage site in Rome, Testaccio, close to the Tiber, the fragments, later wetted with Calcium hydroxide (Calce viva), remained to create a hill now named Monte Testaccio, 45 m high and more than 1 kilometre in circumference.
In antiquity, much of the Tiber River trade took place here, and the remains of broken clay vessels (amphorae) were stacked creating the artificial Testaccio hill, which today is a source of much archeological evidence as to the history of ancient everyday Roman life.

Titulus pictus

tituli picti
Painted stamps, tituli picti, recorded the weight of the container and the contents, and were applied after the amphora was filled.
A titulus pictus is a commercial inscription made on the surface of certain artefacts (such as amphorae).

Linear B

Linear B SyllabaryLinear B tabletsMycenaean script
The amphora appears as 𐀀𐀠𐀡𐀩𐀸, a-pi-po-re-we, in the Linear B Bronze Age records of Knossos, 𐀀𐀡𐀩𐀸, a-po-re-we, at Mycenae, and the fragmentary ]-re-we at Pylos, designated by Ideogram 209 𐃨, Bennett's AMPHORA, which has a number of scribal variants.

Olive oil

oilextra virgin olive oilextra-virgin olive oil
In the Bronze and Iron Ages amphorae spread around the ancient Mediterranean world, being used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as the principal means for transporting and storing grapes, olive oil, wine, oil, olives, grain, fish, and other commodities.
Evidence also suggests that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2500 BC. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the production of olive oil is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete, and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.

Maritime archaeology

marine archaeologymaritime archaeologistmarine archaeologist
Amphorae are of great use to maritime archaeologists, as they often indicate the age of a shipwreck and the geographic origin of the cargo.
Notable early Iron Age shipwrecks include two Phoenician ships of c. 750 BC that foundered off Gaza with cargoes of wine in amphoras.

Wine

winesfine winewhite wine
In the Bronze and Iron Ages amphorae spread around the ancient Mediterranean world, being used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as the principal means for transporting and storing grapes, olive oil, wine, oil, olives, grain, fish, and other commodities.
In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner.

Pithos

pithoicollared-rim jarsimpasto pithos
The amphora complements the large storage container, the pithos, which makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons.
The volume of a pithoid, which can be either a pithos or an amphora, is dependent, he asserts, on 11/14 of the product of the height and a number representing a squared average of minimum and maximum diameters.

Nolan amphora

the Nolan amphora (late 5th century BC), named for its type site, Nola near Naples, and
The Nolan amphora is a variant style of the amphora jar, a common artifact of Greek and Roman pottery.

Phoenicia

PhoenicianPhoeniciansPhoenicio
Amphorae first appeared on the Phoenician coast at approximately 3500 BC. North-African production was based on an ancient tradition which may be traced back to the Phoenician colony of Carthage.
The vessel was about 50 feet long, which contained 50 amphorae full of wine and oil.

Panathenaic amphora

Panathenaic prize amphoraamphoraamphorae
amphorae were used as prizes in the Panathenaic Festivals held between the 6th century BC to the 2nd century BC, filled with olive oil from a sacred grove. Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphora, with black-figure decoration, produced exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting.
Panathenaic amphorae were the amphorae, large ceramic vessels, that contained the olive oil given as prizes in the Panathenaic Games.

Tyrrhenian amphorae

Tyrrhenian amphora
the Tyrrhenian amphora.
Tyrrhenian amphorae are a specific shape of Attic black-figure neck amphorae.

Red-figure pottery

red-figurered-figure stylered figure
Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphora, with black-figure decoration, produced exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting.
Large krater and amphorae became popular at this time.

Heinrich Dressel

Dressel 20
The first systematic classification of Roman amphorae types was undertaken by the German scholar Heinrich Dressel.
Dressel also developed a typology for classifying ancient amphorae, based on his pioneering excavations at Monte Testaccio in Rome.

Ancient Roman pottery

potteryRoman potteryceramic
Ancient Roman pottery
Monte Testaccio is a huge waste mound in Rome made almost entirely of broken amphorae used for transporting and storing liquids and other products – in this case probably mostly Spanish olive oil, which was landed nearby, and was the main fuel for lighting, as well as its use in the kitchen and washing in the baths.

Stirrup jar

Stirrup jar, a two-handled amphora whose opposing handles connect the aperture to the sides of the vessel
H.W. Haskell, a theorist of the later 20th century, proposed that it began as a one-time invention on Crete (not having any precedents), to accomplish more efficient, less wasteful pouring of expensive fluids, to take the place of various amphorae used for the purposes.

Ayla-Axum amphorae

Ayla-Axum Amphoras
The Ayla-Axum amphorae are narrow conical amphorae found in Ethiopia, which were named after the widest range of finds in the Red Sea.

Pottery of ancient Greece

ancient Greek potteryGreek vasesvase painting
Versions of the amphorae were one of many shapes used in Ancient Greek vase painting.
Not all were purely utilitarian; large Geometric amphorae were used as grave markers, kraters in Apulia served as tomb offerings and Panathenaic Amphorae seem to have been looked on partly as objets d’art, as were later terracotta figurines.

Carthage

CarthaginianCarthaginiansCarthaginian army
North-African production was based on an ancient tradition which may be traced back to the Phoenician colony of Carthage.
The many amphorae with Punic markings subsequently found about ancient Mediterranean coastal settlements testify to Carthaginian trade in locally made olive oil and wine.

Carinate

Carinate
Carinate is a shape in pottery, glassware and artistic design usually applied to amphorae or vases.

Black-figure pottery

black-figureblack-figure styleblack figure
Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphora, with black-figure decoration, produced exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting.
The Tydeus Painter should also be mentioned, who around 560 BC liked to paint neck amphoras with a red background.

Lionel Casson

Casson
Lionel Casson, scholar of the contents of shipwrecked amphorae
The author of 23 books on maritime history and classic literature, Casson used ancient material ranging from Demosthenes's speeches and works by Thucydides to cargo manifests and archeological studies of ancient shipwrecks and the contents of the amphorae they carried to develop a framework for the development of shipbuilding, maritime trade routes and naval warfare in the ancient world.

Hispania Baetica

BaeticaRomanBetica
The Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis regions (south-western and eastern Spain) were the main production areas between the 2nd and the 1st century BC due to the distribution of land to military veterans and the founding of new colonies.
Amphoras from Baetica have been found everywhere in the Western Roman empire.