A report on NetherlandsAmsterdam and Dutch Republic

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Overijssel – 1734
The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
Amsterdam Stock Exchange courtyard, 1653
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Utrecht – 1772
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Holland – 1780
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Friesland – 1784
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Zeeland – 1790
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Gelderland – 1792
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
Silver coin: 3 gulder Utrecht –- 1795
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
The united provinces, with Drenthe and the Generality Lands
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Topographic map of Amsterdam
Sermon at the Oude Kerk at Delft, 1651
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Painting by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
Rokin – November 1977
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
Police headquarters of Amsterdam
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
An international primary school in The Hague
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
A public hospital in Amersfoort
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

Amsterdam (, , , lit. The Dam on the River Amstel) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands; with a population of 907,976 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area.

- Amsterdam

It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first fully independent Dutch nation state.

- Dutch Republic

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

- Netherlands

In the Republican period, which began in 1588, the Netherlands entered a unique era of political, economic, and cultural greatness, ranked among the most powerful and influential in Europe and the world; this period is known as the Dutch Golden Age.

- Netherlands

Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles.

- Dutch Republic

Strongly pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance.

- Amsterdam

7 related topics with Alpha


Rembrandt The Night Watch (1642)

Dutch Golden Age

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Rembrandt The Night Watch (1642)
Fishing for Souls, allegory of the Protestant-Catholic struggle
A river landscape with fishermen in rowing boats, windmills beyond, 1679
Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt, depicting wealthy Amsterdam burghers.
The Dutch had the largest merchant fleet in Europe in the 17th century
The Trip brothers, arms traders, built the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam, currently the seat of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, which is a typical example of 17th-century architecture.
Canal in Leiden
A family portrait, second half of the 17th century
The Dancing Couple, by Jan Steen, 1663
Interior of the Laurenskerk in Rotterdam, c. 1664
Astronomer, by Gerrit Dou, c. 1650
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek by Jan Verkolje.
Osias Beert the Elder, Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, Candy and Wine, c. 1620/1625
Johannes Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Earring
The Kaaswaag (Cheese Weigh House) in Gouda, finished in 1667, was designed by architect Pieter Post (1608–1669), as was the Waag in Leiden.

The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Rampjaar, "Disaster Year"), in which Dutch trade, science, and art and the Dutch military were among the most acclaimed in Europe.

The transition by the Netherlands to becoming the foremost maritime and economic power in the world has been called the "Dutch Miracle" by historian K. W. Swart.

Many of those moving north settled in Amsterdam, transforming what was a small harbor into one of the most important ports and commercial centres in the world by 1630.


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Willem Blaeu's 1652 map of Utrecht
The Dom Tower seen from Downtown Utrecht. The remaining section of the Cathedral of Saint Martin is not connected to the tower since the collapse of the nave in 1674 due to a storm.
Lambert de Hondt (II): The Surrender of Utrecht on 30 June 1672 to the French king Louis XIV, 1672, Centraal Museum Utrecht
Prince Maurits in Utrecht, 31 July 1618
People celebrating the liberation of Utrecht at the end of World War II on 7 May 1945
Contemporary map of Utrecht
Oudegracht (the 'old canal') in central Utrecht
The Oudegracht in the 1890s
View of the Oudegracht from the Dom Tower
Aerial view of Utrecht from the Dom Tower
Utrecht Centraal railway station
'' (The Inkpot) with fake UFO
View on the Science Park campus of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Miffy statue at the Nijntjepleintje in Utrecht
The Rietveld Schröder House from 1924
Caryatids at the Winkel van Sinkel
Prins Clausbrug across the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal
team pauses with their coach by the Muntbrug, a rotating bridge built in 1887.
Duitse Huis in April 1982
Birthplace of Pope Adrian VI

Utrecht is the fourth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.

It was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city.

The Union of Utrecht is seen as the beginning of the Dutch Republic.

Dutch Empire

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The formal declaration of independence of the Dutch provinces from the Spanish king, Philip II
São Luís, Maranhão, Dutch Brazil
Olinda, Pernambuco, Dutch Brazil
The Portuguese victory at the Battle of Guararapes, ended Dutch presence in Brazil.
Primary Dutch and Portuguese settlements in Asia, c. 1665. With the exception of Jakarta and Deshima, all had been captured by the Dutch East India Company from Portugal.
Overview of Fort Zeelandia on the island of Formosa, 17th century
Batavia, built in what is now Jakarta, 1682
Dutch conquests in the West Indies and Brazil
Flag of Dutch Brazil
Reprint of a 1650 map of New Netherland
View of Table Bay with ships of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1683
Dejima trading post in Japan, c. 1805
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch colonial possessions around 1840. Included are the Dutch East Indies, Curaçao and Dependencies, Suriname, and the Dutch Gold Coast.
Logo of the VOC
Sukarno, leader of the Indonesian independence movement
Dutch colonists in Suriname, 1920. Most Europeans left after independence in 1975.
Contemporary countries and federated states which were significantly colonised by the Dutch. In the Netherlands, these countries are sometimes known as verwantschapslanden (kindred countries).
Boer Voortrekkers in South Africa
Dutch family in Java, 1902
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
The Stadthuys in Malacca, Malaysia, believed to be the oldest Dutch building in Asia
The Stadhuis of Batavia, said to be modelled after the Dam Palace itself.
Christian cross, altar, pulpit, and organ in the Dutch Reformed Church in Vosburg, South Africa.
Gedung Sate, an early 20th century colonial building which incorporates modern Western neo-classical style with indigenous elements in Bandung, Indonesia.
The Great Post Road (Grote Postweg), spanning West to East Java
Dutch plantation in Mughal Bengal, 1665
The Dutch Empire in 1630
The Dutch Empire in 1650
The Dutch Empire in 1674
The Dutch Empire in 1700
The Dutch Empire in 1750{{Citation needed|date=December 2020}}
The Dutch Empire in 1795{{Citation needed|date=December 2020}}
The Dutch Empire in 1830
The Dutch Empire prior to World War II
The Dutch Empire in 1960
The Dutch Empire in 1975

The Dutch Empire or Dutch colonial empire (Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company—and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815.

The war with Spain led many financiers and traders to emigrate from Antwerp, a major city in Flanders and then one of Europe's most important commercial centres, to Dutch cities, particularly Amsterdam, which became Europe's foremost centre for shipping, banking, and insurance.

Other Creole languages with Dutch linguistic roots are Papiamento still spoken in Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, and Sint Eustatius; Saramaccan and Sranan Tongo still spoken in Suriname; Berbice an extinct language in Guyana; Pecok spoken but in danger of extinction in Indonesia and the Netherlands; Albany Dutch spoken but in danger of extinction in the USA.

The County of Holland around 1350.

County of Holland

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The County of Holland around 1350.
Rorik of Dorestad in a 1912 illustration by Hermanus Willem Koekkoek
The County of Holland around 1350.
Dirk VI, Count of Holland, 1114–1157, and his mother Petronella visiting the work on the Egmond Abbey, Charles Rochussen, 1881.
Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen and Pieter Post, 1654.
The County of Holland in the 15th century
A 1558 map of Holland.
The Relief of Leiden by the Geuzen in 1574, by Otto van Veen.
Dam Square with the New Town Hall under Construction, by Johannes Lingelbach, 1656.

The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1433 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

The territory of the County of Holland corresponds roughly with the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland in the Netherlands.

The largest cities in the republic were situated in the province of Holland, such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Leiden, Alkmaar, Delft, Dordrecht, Haarlem, and the nation's capital, The Hague.

Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.


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Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and draughtsman.

Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and draughtsman.

Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, a self-portrait with Saskia, c. 1635
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, c. 1635
Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660
Rembrandt Memorial Marker Westerkerk Amsterdam
Rembrandt's only known seascape, The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990.
A Polish Nobleman, 1637
The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work has been described as "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of Baroque painting".
A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success
Self Portrait, 1658, Frick Collection, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits"
The Hundred Guilder Print, c. 1647–49, etching, drypoint and burin on Japan paper, National Museum of Western Art.
The Three Trees, 1643, etching
Rembrandt drawing of an Indian Mughal painting
Role-playing in self-portrait as an oriental potentate with a kris/keris, a Javanese blade weapon from the VOC era (etching, c. 1634)
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
The Polish Rider – Possibly a Lisowczyk on horseback
The Man with the Golden Helmet, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, is no longer attributed to the master.
Saskia as Flora, 1635
Slaughtered Ox (1655), Musée du Louvre, Paris
Rembrandt House Museum
Rembrandt statue and the sculptures of The Night Watch in 3D at the Rembrandtplein in Amsterdam
Rembrandt statue in Leiden
In 1775, a 25-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote in a letter that "I live wholly with Rembrandt" ("...ich zeichne, künstle p. Und lebe ganz mit Rembrandt."). At the age of 81 (1831), Goethe wrote the essay "Rembrandt der Denker" ("Rembrandt the Thinker"), published in the posthumous collection of his works.
The Jewish Bride, c. 1665–9, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. In Vincent van Gogh's own words (1885), "I should be happy to give 10 years of my life if I could go on sitting here in front of this picture [The Jewish Bride] fortnight, with only a crust of dry bread for food." In a letter to his brother Theo, Vincent wrote, "What an intimate, what an infinitely sympathetic picture it is,"
Rembrandt Laughing, 1628, J. Paul Getty Museum
The Girl in a Picture Frame, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw
The evangelist Matthew and the Angel, 1661
Moving Rembrandt's The Night Watch for the 1898 Rembrandt Exhibition
A young Rembrandt, c. 1628, when he was 22. Partly an exercise in chiaroscuro. Rijksmuseum
Self-Portrait in a Gorget, c. 1629; Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
Self-portrait, 1630, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Self-Portrait with Velvet Beret and Furred Mantle 1634
Self-portrait at the age of 34, 1640, National Gallery, London
Self-Portrait, oil on canvas, 1652. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Self-portrait, Vienna c. 1655, oil on walnut, cut down in size. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Self-Portrait, 1660
Self Portrait as Zeuxis, c. 1662. One of 2 painted self-portraits in which Rembrandt is turned to the left.<ref name="W1">White, 200</ref> Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Self-Portrait with Two Circles, c.1665–1669. Kenwood House, London
Self-portrait, 1669.
Self-portrait at the age of 63, dated 1669, the year he died. National Gallery, London
The Stoning of Saint Stephen, 1625, The first painting by Rembrandt, painted at the age of 19.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Starcky |first=Emmanuel |title=Rembrandt |publisher=Hazan |year=1990 |isbn=978-2-85025-212-9 |page=45}}</ref> It is currently kept in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon.
Artist in His Studio, 1628, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Bust of an old man with a fur hat, the artist's father, 1630
Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630
Andromeda, Circa 1630
The Philosopher in Meditation, 1632
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632
Portrait of Aeltje Uylenburgh, 1632, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, c. 1633–1634
Sacrifice of Isaac, 1635
The Blinding of Samson, 1636, which Rembrandt gave to Huyghens
Susanna, 1636
Belshassar's Feast, 1636-1638
Danaë, 1636 - c. 1643, Hermitage Museum
The Archangel Raphael Leaving Tobias' Family, 1637, Louvre
The Landscape with Good Samaritan, 1638, Czartoryski Museum, Kraków
Scholar at his Writing Table, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw
Joseph's Dream, c. 1645
Susanna and the Elders, 1647
The Mill, 1648
An Old Man in Red, 1652–1654
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, 1653, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York
Young Girl at the Window, 1654, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Portrait of Jan Six, a wealthy friend of Rembrandt, 1654
Bathsheba at Her Bath, modelled by Hendrickje, 1654
A Woman Bathing in a Stream, modelled by Hendrickje, 1654
Pallas Athene, c.1655
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deijman, 1656
Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph, 1656
Woman in a Doorway, 1657–1658
Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther, 1660
Saint Bartholomew, 1661, J. Paul Getty Museum
The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, 1662
The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (cut-down), 1661–62
Lucretia, 1666 (Minneapolis Institute of Art)
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 - Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Self-portrait, c. 1628–29, pen and brush and ink on paper
Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open, 1630, etching and burin
Seated Old Man (c.1630), red and black chalk on paper, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Suzannah and the Elders, 1634, drawing in Sanguine on paper, Kupferstichkabinett Berlin
Self-portrait with Saskia, 1636, etching, Rijksmuseum
An elephant, 1637, drawing in black chalk on paper, Albertina, Austria
Self-portrait leaning on a Sill, 1639, etching, National Gallery of Art
Christ and the woman taken in adultery, c. 1639–41, drawing in ink, Louvre
Beggars I., c. 1640–42, ink on paper, Warsaw University Library
The Windmill, 1641, etching
The Diemerdijk at Houtewael (near Amsterdam), 1648–49, pen and brown ink, brown wash, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
The Three Crosses, 1653, drypoint etching, state III of V, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Virgin and Child with a Cat, 1654, original copper etching plate above (the original copper plate), in Victoria and Albert Museum, example of the print below
Christ presented to the People, drypoint etching, 1655, state I of VIII, Rijksmuseum
Two Old Men in Conversation /Two Jews in Discussion, Walking, year unknown, black chalk and brown ink on paper, Teylers Museum
A a child being taught to walk (c. 1635). David Hockney said: "I think it's the greatest drawing ever done... It's a magnificent drawing, magnificent."<ref name="Hockney2014">{{Cite web |last=Lewis, Tim |date=16 November 2014 |title=David Hockney: 'When I'm working, I feel like Picasso, I feel I'm 30' |url=https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/16/david-hockney-interview-i-feel-like-picasso |access-date=16 June 2020 |website=The Guardian |quote=David Hockney (2014): "There's a drawing by Rembrandt, I think it's the greatest drawing ever done. It's in the British Museum and it's of a family teaching a child to walk, so it's a universal thing, everybody has experienced this or seen it happen. Everybody. I used to print out Rembrandt drawings big and give them to people and say: 'If you find a better drawing send it to me. But if you find a better one it will be by Goya or Michelangelo perhaps.' But I don't think there is one actually. It's a magnificent drawing, magnificent." |archive-date=16 May 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200516011950/https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/16/david-hockney-interview-i-feel-like-picasso |url-status=live }}</ref>
A young woman sleeping (c. 1654). Shows Rembrandt's calligraphic-style draughtsmanship.

Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic while he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, and his wider reputation was initially based on them alone.

A depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July, 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands.

Map of the pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe culture(s) associated with the Proto-Germanic language, ca 500–50 BCE. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture.

Dutch language

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Map of the pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe culture(s) associated with the Proto-Germanic language, ca 500–50 BCE. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture.
Area in which Old Dutch was spoken
The Utrecht baptismal vow
Title page of the Statenvertaling (1637) reads: Biblia ... Uyt de Oorspronckelijcke talen in onse Neder-landtsche tale getrouwelijck over-geset. (English: From the Original languages into our Dutch language faithfully translated.
The location of Suriname in South America
The Dutch Caribbean at both ends of the Lesser Antilles, lining the Caribbean Sea
Standard Dutch used in a 1916 ad in South Africa before Afrikaans replaced Dutch for use in media
The distribution of Afrikaans across South Africa: proportion of the population speaking Afrikaans at home
The 27-letter compound hemelwaterinfiltratiegebied (rainwater infiltration area) on a traffic sign in Zwolle, Netherlands
Dutch uses the digraph IJ as a single letter and it can be seen in several variations. Here, a marking saying ("line/route" + "bus"; the tram lane also serves as bus road).
The distribution of the primary Germanic languages in Europe in around AD 1:
North Germanic
North Sea Germanic, or Ingvaeonic
Weser-Rhine Germanic, or Istvaeonic
Elbe Germanic, or Irminonic
East Germanic
Lighter-colored areas denote areas of either mixed settlement, such as between East-Germanic and Balto-Slavic peoples, or possible settlement, such as the Istvaeones within the Roman Empire or the Ingvaenes in Northern Denmark.

Dutch (Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by about 25 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting most of the population of the Netherlands (where it is the only official language countrywide) and about 60% of the population of Belgium (as one of three official languages).

The 1585 fall of Antwerp to the Spanish army led to a flight to the northern Netherlands, where the Dutch Republic declared its independence from Spain.

The urban dialects of the Randstad, which are Hollandic dialects, do not diverge from standard Dutch very much, but there is a clear difference between the city dialects of Rotterdam, The Hague, Amsterdam and Utrecht.

The Great Assembly of the States General in 1651.

States General of the Netherlands

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The Great Assembly of the States General in 1651.
The Binnenhof, seat of the Staten-Generaal
The Trêveszaal, where the Council of the Ministers takes place every week and foreign delegations are received
The Dutch Senate (Eerste Kamer)
The Dutch House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer)

The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal ) is the supreme bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).

In 1579, during the Dutch Revolt, the States General split as the northern provinces openly rebelled against Philip II, and the northern States General replaced Philip II as the supreme authority of the Dutch Republic in 1581.

They take place in the Ridderzaal (Hall of Knights) in the Binnenhof, except for the inauguration of the monarch, which occurs in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam.