A report on Amsterdam and Haarlem

The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
A topographic map of Haarlem.
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
The City Hall on the Grote Markt, built in the 14th century, replacing the Count's castle, after this had burnt down partially. The remainders were given to the city.
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
A sketch of the siege of Haarlem seen from the North, with Het Dolhuys on the right, and the river Spaarne on the left
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
A map of Haarlem around 1550. The city is completely surrounded by a city wall and defensive moat. In the North (top), at a fork in the road, the complex known as Het Dolhuys can be seen. In the south-west corner on the lower left, the city bleaching grounds can be seen. Notice the near-square shape of the city: this was based on the ancient plan of Jerusalem.
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
A map of Haarlem after the fire in 1578 by Thomas Thomasz. The damage across the city can still be seen two years later.
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
The legend of the Haarlem shield, painting (c. 1630) by Pieter de Grebber in the City Hall
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
A map of Haarlem in 1646, before Salomon de Bray's ambitious northwards expansion plan was executed. North is to the left. The Houtmarkt has been built in the north east, and the Haarlemmerport is visible, as well as the Old Men's Almshouse, which nowadays houses the Frans Hals Museum.
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
The Amsterdamse Poort, former gateway to the city from Amsterdam, is one of the few visible traces left of the old city wall.
Topographic map of Amsterdam
Grote Markt of Haarlem, c. 1670–90, by Cornelis Beelt
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
The Grote Markt in 1696, painting by Gerrit Adriaensz. Berckheyde
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
Many government-owned buildings are national heritage sites, such as the local police headquarters located on the Koudenhorn 2. Originally built as the Dutch Reformed "Diaconie" (poor house and orphanage) in 1768, it was built to house up to 900 people, indicating the extent of the economic crisis in Haarlem that had resulted from losing shipping power to Amsterdam.
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
Windmill De Adriaan
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A map of Haarlem in 1827. The city walls have been torn down to use as building materials for city expansion.
A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
The Haarlemmerhout in Haarlem is the oldest park designed for public access in the Netherlands. It is said that Napoleon's army carved their initials in these trees.
Rokin – November 1977
The Villa Welgelegen, built in the 18th century, is the current government house of the province of North Holland.
Herengracht
A typesetter at the Joh. Enschedé printing shop (was located behind the St. Bavochurch) in 1884, by the American artist Charles Frederic Ulrich.
Prinsengracht
Cotton mills in Haarlem in the 19th century
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
A replica of the Arend, one of two locomotives built by R. B. Longridge and Company for the Haarlem-Amsterdam railway line in the 1830s.
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
This Gaper is located on the front of "Van der Pigge", a chemist's that declined to move for Vroom & Dreesmann's new department store in 1932.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
"Man in front of a firing squad", memorial by Mari Andriessen to commemorate 15 innocent victims chosen at random who were shot there by German occupational forces on 7 March 1945, Dreef, Haarlem
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
Pipe organ at Haarlem's Sint-Bavokerk. Mozart once played this organ.
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
Saint Bavo saves Haarlem from the Kennemers. Dated 1673 but showing legend from 1274. In the background the Sint-Bavokerk (Grote Kerk) can be seen.
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Cathedral of Saint Bavo
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
Teylers Museum in Haarlem
Spiegelgracht
Stadsschouwburg, theater on the Wilsonplein
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
Patronaat pop music hall
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
Haarlem Baseball Week 2006 at the Pim Mulier Stadium
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
View of Haarlem with Bleaching Fields by Jacob van Ruisdael (c. undefined 1665)
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
River Spaarne through Haarlem
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
The Street of Donkere Spaarne near Spaarne River
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Kleine Houtstraat street in summer
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
Lange Brug (Long Bridge), in popular speech also known as "de verfroller" ("the paint roller").
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
Haarlem railway station, built in 1906, one of the oldest train stations in the Netherlands. It replaced the original station at the Oude Weg dating from 1839, which was one of the first two stations in the Netherlands as part of the oldest Dutch railway line between Amsterdam and Haarlem.
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
Street in Haarlem
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
Satellite image of Haarlem
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Boroughs of Amsterdam
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Police headquarters of Amsterdam
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre

It is situated about 20 km west of Amsterdam and near the coastal dunes.

- Haarlem

Amsterdam is located in the Western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, the capital of which is not Amsterdam, but rather Haarlem.

- Amsterdam

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Netherlands

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Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

The first great siege was Alba's effort to capture Haarlem and thereby cut Holland in half.

North Holland

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Province of the Netherlands in the northwestern part of the country.

Province of the Netherlands in the northwestern part of the country.

National Park Duinen van Texel
Damrak, Amsterdam
Hartekamp, Heemstede
Hoorn
Zandvoort
Government house of North Holland province, Villa Welgelegen, in Haarlem
Broek in Waterland
Satellite image of the North Holland, Friesland and Flevoland
Satellite image of the south of North Holland
Waterland
Map of North Holland (2019)
A Highland in Zuid-Kennemerland National Park

The provincial capital is Haarlem (pop.

161,265). The province's largest city and also the largest city in the Netherlands is the Dutch capital Amsterdam, with a population of 862,965 as of November 2019.

The Hague

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City and municipality of the Netherlands, situated on the west coast facing the North Sea.

City and municipality of the Netherlands, situated on the west coast facing the North Sea.

The Binnenhof at the Hofvijver, 1625
Street in The Hague by Sybrand van Beest, c. 1650, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Old City Hall of The Hague around 1900
The Ministry of Justice and Security building, opened in 2012
Detailed topographic map of The Hague, 2014
The Hague, divided into neighbourhoods
The Hofvijver and the buildings housing the States General of the Netherlands
View of the Hoftoren (left) and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (the triangular gable right)
The Hague City Hall
The Peace Palace houses the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of Arbitration amongst other institutions.
International Criminal Court
Meeting in the Hall of Knights during the Congress of Europe (9 May 1948)
The Hague's central financial district, Beatrixkwartier, with the modern tram viaduct called the Netkous ("Fishnet stocking")
Cars Jeans Stadion
Modern RegioCitadis tram on route 2, Loosduinen, April 2012
Internal view of The Hague Central station
The Ridderzaal inside the Binnenhof, the political centre of the Netherlands
Monument commemorating the founding of the Kingdom of the Netherlands at Plein 1813
Noordeinde Palace
Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk

With a population of over half a million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

Other destinations include Leiden, Haarlem, Zwolle, Groningen, Leeuwarden, Amersfoort, Enschede, Breda, Tilburg and Eindhoven.

Randstad

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Bubble map showing the population sizes of larger towns and cities in the Randstad circa 2012
Amsterdam
Zuidas
The Hague
Rotterdam
Utrecht
A RandstadRail LRV between Zoetermeer and The Hague

The Randstad ("Rim" or "Edge" City) is a roughly crescent-shaped conurbation in the central-western Netherlands, consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht); their suburbs, and many towns in between, that all grew and merged into each other, containing almost half the country's population.

The Randstad's main cities are Almere, Amsterdam, Delft, Dordrecht, Haarlem, The Hague, Leiden, Rotterdam, Utrecht, and Zoetermeer.

Amsterdam metropolitan area

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The Amsterdam metropolitan area (Metropoolregio Amsterdam) is the city region around the city of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.

Municipalities of Aalsmeer, Almere, Amstelveen, Amsterdam, Beemster, Beverwijk, Blaricum, Bloemendaal, Diemen, Edam-Volendam, Gooise Meren, Haarlem, Haarlemmermeer, Heemskerk, Heemstede, Hilversum, Huizen, Landsmeer, Laren, Lelystad, Oostzaan, Ouder-Amstel, Purmerend, Uitgeest, Uithoorn, Velsen, Waterland, Weesp, Wijdemeren, Wormerland, Zaanstad and Zandvoort

Haarlemmermeer

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Municipality in the west of the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.

Municipality in the west of the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.

Topographic map of Haarlemmermeer, June 2015
Historic map of the Haarlemmermeer before reclamation.
Pumping Station Cruquius
Lijnden
Cruquiusmuseum entrance, taken from Cruquiusmuseum park
TransPort Building - Houses the head offices of Martinair and Transavia.com
Calatrava bridge - Cittern
Schiphol Airport
Boardroom of the local government in Hoofddorp
Hendrik Colijn, 1925
Tineke Netelenbos, 2015
Fanny Blankers-Koen, 1988

The name Haarlemmermeer means Haarlem's lake, referring to the body of water from which the region was reclaimed in the 19th century.

But it was not until a furious hurricane in November 1836 drove the waters as far as the gates of Amsterdam, and another on Christmas Day sent them in the opposite direction to submerge the streets of Leiden, that the mind of the nation was seriously turned to the matter.

Leiden

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City and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

City and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

Topographic map of Leiden
Windmill museum De Valk
Relief of Leiden (1574), painting by Otto van Veen. Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.
17th-century houses along the Herengracht
Town hall and bridge (de Koornbrug)
The 1852 Sijthoff printing office, Leiden
Leiden's west gate, the Morspoort
Leiden's east gate, the Zijlpoort
The Singel at night, showing the chimney of the Light Factory
Leiden grew twelve-fold in size between 1896 and 1981, annexing land from neighboring municipalities.
Canal near Leiden - May 1978
Hooglandse Kerk, Leiden
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The 1860 Leiden Observatory, after restoration (2013)
De Waag (1900)
Leiden, central railway station
William II, Count of Holland in the Lakenhal
Rembrandt van Rijn, ca.1655
Willem van de Velde II, ca.1660)
Leoni Jansen, 2013
Herman Boerhaave
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
Alfons Groenendijk, 2017
Kjeld Nuis, 2018
Buurtpoes Bledder
The poem on Leiden's Stadhuis
Shakespeare
Langston Hughes
e.e. cummings
Waring Cuney

Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 km from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north.

In 1842, the railroad from Leiden to Haarlem was inaugurated and one year later the railway to The Hague (Den Haag) was completed, resulting in some social and economic improvement.

The County of Holland around 1350.

County of Holland

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State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1433 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1433 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

The County of Holland around 1350.
Rorik of Dorestad in a 1912 illustration by Hermanus Willem Koekkoek
The County of Holland around 1350.
Dirk VI, Count of Holland, 1114–1157, and his mother Petronella visiting the work on the Egmond Abbey, Charles Rochussen, 1881.
Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen and Pieter Post, 1654.
The County of Holland in the 15th century
A 1558 map of Holland.
The Relief of Leiden by the Geuzen in 1574, by Otto van Veen.
Dam Square with the New Town Hall under Construction, by Johannes Lingelbach, 1656.

The largest cities in the republic were situated in the province of Holland, such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Leiden, Alkmaar, Delft, Dordrecht, Haarlem, and the nation's capital, The Hague.

The IJ in 2017

IJ (Amsterdam)

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Body of water, formerly a bay, in the Dutch province of North Holland.

Body of water, formerly a bay, in the Dutch province of North Holland.

The IJ in 2017
Oranjesluizen in 2007
Map of 1681 showing on the right the extent of the IJ Bay prior to reclamation. Note the map is oriented so that west is at the top.
The IJ on the painting The Return to Amsterdam of the Second Expedition to the East Indies (1599) by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom
Parade of ships on the IJ during SAIL Amsterdam in 2015

It is known for being Amsterdam's waterfront.

At the same time, the bay gnawed away at the surrounding farmlands, almost connecting with the Haarlemmermeer (Lake Haarlem) and seriously threatening the cities of Haarlem and Amsterdam.

Tulip

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Tulips (Tulipa) are a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

Tulips (Tulipa) are a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

Eastern end of the tulip range from Turkmenistan on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea to the Pamir-Alai and Tien-Shan mountains
Variegation produced by the tulip breaking virus
Tulipa sylvestris subsp. australis with seedpod by Sydenham Edwards (1804)
Tulip cultivation in the Netherlands
The Keukenhof in Lisse, Netherlands
The Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
'Gavota', a division 3 cultivar
'Yonina', a division 6 cultivar
'Texas Flame', a division 10 cultivar
Tulip bulb planting depth 6 in
Turkish Airlines uses a grey tulip emblem on its aircraft
Obverse with 22 tulips
Reverse with three tulips

Thus, 1594 is considered the date of the tulip's first flowering in the Netherlands, despite reports of the cultivation of tulips in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam two or three decades earlier.

The story takes place in the Dutch city of Haarlem, where a reward is offered to the first grower who can produce a truly black tulip.