A report on Netherlands and Amsterdam

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Topographic map of Amsterdam
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
Rokin – November 1977
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
Police headquarters of Amsterdam
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
An international primary school in The Hague
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
A public hospital in Amersfoort
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

Amsterdam (, , , lit. The Dam on the River Amstel) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands; with a population of 907,976 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area.

- Amsterdam

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

- Netherlands

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Dam Square with the Royal Palace (center) and the Nieuwe Kerk (right) in 2005

Dam Square

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Dam Square with the Royal Palace (center) and the Nieuwe Kerk (right) in 2005
National Monument, with the Hotel Krasnapolsky on the right.
The Dam in 1544, as an actual dam in the river Amstel. View faces roughly southwest. On the right hand side are the old town hall and the Nieuwe Kerk.
The Dam with the weigh house, late 1600s by Gerrit Berckheyde.
Dam Square just after the shooting, 1945.
The Dam during the 1980 riots.
Several times a year there used to be a large funfair on Dam Square.

Dam Square or the Dam is a town square in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.

Cycling infrastructure being placed in Chicago, Illinois

Cycling infrastructure

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Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure permissible for use by cyclists, including the network of roads and streets used by motorists, except where cyclists are excluded (e.g., many freeways/motorways), along with bikeways from which motor vehicles are excluded—including bike paths, bike lanes, cycle tracks, rail trails and, where permitted, sidewalks.

Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure permissible for use by cyclists, including the network of roads and streets used by motorists, except where cyclists are excluded (e.g., many freeways/motorways), along with bikeways from which motor vehicles are excluded—including bike paths, bike lanes, cycle tracks, rail trails and, where permitted, sidewalks.

Cycling infrastructure being placed in Chicago, Illinois
Signposted greenway, bordering on a gracht in Nordhorn, Germany
Cyclists use a segregated cut through of a busy interchange in London at rush hour.
This fietspad (bicycle path) is in the Netherlands safely linking housing with decent street lights.
Segregated cycle facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Fahrradstraße means "bicycle street".
Generously broad separated bike lanes on Dronning Louises Bro in Copenhagen, Denmark. Normally filled with bicycles, as it has been the busiest stretch of bicycle lane in the world. The title has been taken over by Knippelsbro, another bridge in Copenhagen.
Former railroad line transformed into a shared use path in England
Baana, a 1.3 km long pedestrian and cycling path in the center of Helsinki, Finland
Advisory bike lane as implemented in Netherlands. Seen in Ouddorp in Alkmaar, North Holland.
Ciclovia Adriatica, in Italy
Two opened one-way streets for cyclists with additional signs (Germany)
A bicycle signal light in Toronto
One of the mountain pass cycling milestones placed along the climb to the Col d'Izoard in the French Alps
A buffered bike lane in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada
New Road, Brighton - Shared Space scheme reduced motor traffic by 93%.
A shared bus and cycle lane in Mannheim, Germany
Bicycle parking at the Alewife subway station in Cambridge, Massachusetts, located at the intersection of three cycle paths
Multi-storey bicycle parking in Amsterdam
Bicycle lift in Trondheim, Norway
Bike commuters disembark at Palo Alto Station in Palo Alto, California
Kōjaku Kōtsū bus in Shiga Prefecture, Japan
Cycling in Santos, Brazil
Bikeway in Portugal
Bikeway in Pocuro, Chile
Bikeway in Pesaro, Italy
Ciclopaseo, Ciclovía Ejido Park Quito, Ecuador
Bikeway in Bogotá, Colombia
Trans Canada Trail along Coal Harbour in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia
alt=Cycling in Los Angeles, California Cycleway in 1900|Cycling in Los Angeles, California, Cycleway in 1900
Cycling in New York City
New York City Times Square bicycle sharing system
Bikeway in Minsk
Vélib' station in Paris, France

Denmark and the Netherlands have pioneered the concept of "bicycle superhighways".

The city of Amsterdam, where around 40% of all trips are by bicycle, adopted similar parking reduction policies in the 80s and 90s.

Port of Amsterdam

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The Harbour in Amsterdam (1630) by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom
A satellite photo of the port of Amsterdam
North Sea Canal, Afrikahaven, Amerikahaven and Westhaven
The Poseidon, tugboat at the port
Alaskahaven (containers)
Passengers terminal
Heliport in the port

The port of Amsterdam (Haven van Amsterdam) is a seaport in Amsterdam in North Holland, Netherlands.

ING Group

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An ING Bank in Nieuw-Vennep, the Netherlands
ING Wholesale Banking, London office
ING New York City Marathon

The ING Group (ING Groep) is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Amsterdam.

The actions were in line with EU demands to split the Group's banking and insurance operations as a condition of Dutch state aid.

Everyday cycling in the Netherlands (Amsterdam).

Cycling in the Netherlands

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Everyday cycling in the Netherlands (Amsterdam).
Amsterdam, 1982. Demonstration against 'car terror'
A typical Dutch bike path, Rotterdam.
A typical bi-directional cycle path design (middle, in red), a roadway on the right with a green verge in between. There is a footpath (in grey) to the bike path's left.
Fietsstrook type cycle lanes (red) that may be used by motorists as well when other cars approach from the opposite direction. The cars must use them safely, however, and not crowd out the cyclists.
"Fietsstraat" road sign indicates priority for cyclists.
A fietsstraat (cyclestreet) where bicycles are the main form of transport and cars are considered "guests".
Fietssnelweg (cycle highway) F35 in Enschede.
The Hovenring at night
Ferry across the IJ near Amsterdam Central Station.
Directional signpost for cyclists.
The "padstool" type of signpost.
Bicycle parking in Utrecht (2006)
Bicycle parking in Utrecht (2019)
OV-fiets share bikes in the Netherlands
Sign for national cycle route LF 8a under the general cycle track sign
Sign for route LF 12a a.k.a. the Maas- en Vesting route
White bicycles, for free use, in Hoge Veluwe National Park.
Riders taking a break at the St Hubert windmill.
Cycling through rapeseed fields, Polsbroekerdam.
A recreational cycle path made of crushed seashells, Balloërveld.
An OV-fiets dispenser at Lent train station.
Chauffeur-driven bicycle, on Damstraat in Amsterdam.
Amsterdam's Fietsflat, a three-storey bicycle parking station at Centraal train station.

Cycling is a common mode of transport in the Netherlands, with 36% of Dutch people listing the bicycle as their most frequent way of getting around on a typical day, as opposed to the car (45%) and public transport (11%).

and Schiermonnikoog ) impose an extra charge for bicycles, while others (such as those across the IJ in Amsterdam) carry bicycles for free.

Labour Party (Netherlands)

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Willem Drees, co-founder, party leader (1946–1958) and Prime Minister (1948–1958)
Joop den Uyl, party leader (1966–1986) and Prime Minister (1973–1977)
Wim Kok, Third Way party leader (1986–2001) and Prime Minister (1994–2002)
Wouter Bos, party leader (2002–2010)
Lodewijk Asscher, party leader (2016–2021)
Presentation of the PvdA candidates for the 2012 general election
PvdA activists in an October 2004 demonstration
Lilianne Ploumen, party leader from January 2021 until April 2022.
Paul Tang, leader in the European Parliament since 2014

The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid,, abbreviated as PvdA, or P van de A, ) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.

The party has historically been very strong in the major cities such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam as well as in the northern provinces of Drenthe, Friesland and Groningen.

After 1906

Piet Mondrian

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Dutch painter and art theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century.

Dutch painter and art theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century.

After 1906
Mondrian's birthplace in Amersfoort, Netherlands, now The Mondriaan House, a museum.
Piet Mondrian lived in this house, now the Villa Mondriaan, in Winterswijk, from 1880 to 1892.
Willow Grove: Impression of Light and Shadow, c. 1905, oil on canvas, 35 × 45 cm, Dallas Museum of Art
Piet Mondrian, Evening; Red Tree (Avond; De rode boom), 1908–1910, oil on canvas, 70 × 99 cm, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag
Spring Sun (Lentezon): Castle Ruin: Brederode, c. late 1909 – early 1910, oil on masonite, 62 × 72 cm, Dallas Museum of Art
Piet Mondrian, View from the Dunes with Beach and Piers, Domburg, 1909, oil and pencil on cardboard, Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gray Tree, 1911, Kunstmuseum Den Haag, an early experimentation with Cubism
Tableau I, 1921, Kunstmuseum Den Haag
Piet Mondrian and Pétro (Nelly) van Doesburg in Mondrian's Paris studio, 1923
Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930, Kunsthaus Zürich
Composition No. 10 (1939–1942), oil on canvas, private collection. Fellow De Stijl artist Theo van Doesburg suggested a link between non-representational works of art and ideals of peace and spirituality.
New York City I (1942), Paris, Centre Pompidou.
Victory Boogie Woogie (1942–1944), Kunstmuseum Den Haag
Mondrian dresses by Yves Saint Laurent shown with a Mondrian painting in 1966.

Mondrian was born in Amersfoort, province of Utrecht in the Netherlands, the second of his parents' children.

After a strict Protestant upbringing, in 1892, Mondrian entered the Academy for Fine Art in Amsterdam.


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Tulips (Tulipa) are a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

Tulips (Tulipa) are a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

Eastern end of the tulip range from Turkmenistan on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea to the Pamir-Alai and Tien-Shan mountains
Variegation produced by the tulip breaking virus
Tulipa sylvestris subsp. australis with seedpod by Sydenham Edwards (1804)
Tulip cultivation in the Netherlands
The Keukenhof in Lisse, Netherlands
The Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
'Gavota', a division 3 cultivar
'Yonina', a division 6 cultivar
'Texas Flame', a division 10 cultivar
Tulip bulb planting depth 6 in
Turkish Airlines uses a grey tulip emblem on its aircraft
Obverse with 22 tulips
Reverse with three tulips

Thus, 1594 is considered the date of the tulip's first flowering in the Netherlands, despite reports of the cultivation of tulips in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam two or three decades earlier.

The Netherlands is the world's main producer of commercial tulip plants, producing as many as 3 billion bulbs annually, the majority for export.

The Night Watch by Rembrandt, 1642

Dutch art

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The Night Watch by Rembrandt, 1642
Starry Night Over the Rhône by Vincent van Gogh, 1888
Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer is often considered to be the best known piece of Dutch art.
Willem Claeszoon Heda (17th century): Breakfast with a Crab
Vermeer's Officer and a Laughing Girl circa 1657
The Dam, Amsterdam (circa 1895) by George Hendrik Breitner
Self-Portrait with Straw Hat by Vincent van Gogh, summer 1887
Painter on the Road to Tarascon, August 1888, believed to have been destroyed by fire during the Second World War
Portrait of Joseph Roulin
Piet Mondrian's Victory Boogie Woogie

Dutch art describes the history of visual arts in the Netherlands, after the United Provinces separated from Flanders.

Rembrandt had by 1631 established such a good reputation that he received several assignments for portraits from Amsterdam.


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1989 election poster showing the old logo in which the pink lines and the blue spaces forming allude to a peace sign.
1994 election posters showing the duo Rabbae/Brouwer. The text reads: "GroenLinks counts double"
2006 election posters showing Halsema. The text reads: Grow along, GroenLinks. The turret is the official working office of the Dutch Prime Minister.
Senate group leader Paul Rosenmöller
EP-delegation leader Bas Eickhout
Former party Bureau of GroenLinks in Utrecht
Logo from 1989 to 1994
Variant logo

GroenLinks is a green political party in the Netherlands.

There were five candidates for this position: Amsterdam city councillor Judith Sargentini, former MEP Alexander de Roo, senator Tineke Strik, environmental researcher Bas Eickhout and Niels van den Berge assistant of MEP Buitenweg.