A report on Amsterdam and Rijksmuseum

Rijksmuseum at the Museumplein in 2016
Isaac Gogel (1765–1821)
The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
The atrium after the renovation in 2013
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
Queen Beatrix and museum director Wim Pijbes in 2013
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
The library in the Rijksmuseum
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
The Rijksmuseum was located in the Trippenhuis between 1817 and 1885.
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
Drawing of the design by Pierre Cuypers in 1876.
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
Front of Cuypers' building, circa 1895.
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
View of the facade by night.
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
Portrait of a Young Couple (1622) by Frans Hals
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem (1630) by Rembrandt
Topographic map of Amsterdam
The Meagre Company (1633–37) by Frans Hals and Pieter Codde
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
The Night Watch (1642) by Rembrandt
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
Banquet at the Crossbowmen’s Guild in Celebration of the Treaty of Münster (1648) by Bartholomeus van der Helst
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
The Threatened Swan ({{circa}} 1650) by Jan Asselijn
The Milkmaid ({{circa}} 1657–58) by Johannes Vermeer
A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
The Jewish Bride ({{circa}} 1667) by Rembrandt
Rokin – November 1977
Girl in a Blue Dress (1641) by Johannes Cornelisz Verspronck
Landscape with Waterfall (1660s) by Jacob van Ruisdael
Shivaji's portrait (1680s) in the Rijksmuseum (1630-80)
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Police headquarters of Amsterdam
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre

The Rijksmuseum is the national museum of the Netherlands dedicated to Dutch arts and history and is located in Amsterdam.

- Rijksmuseum

Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Concertgebouw, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops.

- Amsterdam

8 related topics with Alpha


The entrance side of the museum in 2012

Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam

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The entrance side of the museum in 2012
The old building of the Stedelijk Museum was opened in 1895
Temporary location of the Stedelijk Museum in the building Post CS
Logo of the new Stedelijk Museum.
Still life with bottles and apples by Paul Cézanne was stolen in 1988
The façade of the Weissman building
The new wing of the museum in 2012
The enclosed escalator inside the museum leads from the basement directly to the top floor in 2012
The museum logo on the building exterior in 2013

The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam (Municipal Museum Amsterdam), colloquially known as the Stedelijk, is a museum for modern art, contemporary art, and design located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

It is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, where it is close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Rijksmuseum, and the Concertgebouw.

Museum at the Museumplein in 2008

Van Gogh Museum

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Museum at the Museumplein in 2008
Museum at the Museumplein in 2008
The Painter of Sunflowers, a portrayal of Vincent van Gogh painting sunflowers by Paul Gauguin, 1888

The Van Gogh Museum is a Dutch art museum dedicated to the works of Vincent van Gogh and his contemporaries in the Museum Square in Amsterdam South, close to the Stedelijk Museum, the Rijksmuseum, and the Concertgebouw.

The collection was inherited by her son Vincent Willem van Gogh in 1925, eventually loaned to the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, where it was displayed for many years, and was transferred to the state-initiated Vincent van Gogh Foundation in 1962.

Museum Square in 2005, with the Van Gogh Museum, a temporary Ferris wheel, and the Rijksmuseum


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Museum Square in 2005, with the Van Gogh Museum, a temporary Ferris wheel, and the Rijksmuseum
International Colonial and Export Exhibition in 1883
Demonstration against government policies in 2004
US Consulate General in Amsterdam Museumplein

The Museumplein (Museum Square) is a public space in the Museumkwartier neighbourhood of the Amsterdam-Zuid borough in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Located at the Museumplein are three major museums – the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh Museum, and Stedelijk Museum – and the concert hall Concertgebouw.

Pierre Cuypers

Pierre Cuypers

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Dutch architect.

Dutch architect.

Pierre Cuypers
The Rijksmuseum was designed by Cuypers in a combination of both Renaissance and Gothic styles in the late 1870s. The result is similar to the Hôtel de Ville in Paris in what is considered to be "French Neo-Renaissance" style.  However, at the  Rijksmuseum the Gothic elements seem to outweigh the Renaissance and the building, despite the English Renaissance quoins, and chateauesque roofs, is sometimes considered to be Neo-Gothic.
Pierre Cuypers statue (by August Falise), Munsterplein, Roermond (Netherlands)
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{{ill|Vondelkerk|nl}}, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Castle de Haar, Haarzuilens (Netherlands)
Munsterkerk, Roermond (Netherlands)
St. Joseph Cathedral, Groningen (Netherlands)
Eastern front of the Mainz Cathedral. The central tower dates back to Cuypers work in 1875.
Perfume fountain for the Dutch contribution to the Centennial Exposition in 1876

His name is most frequently associated with the Amsterdam Central Station (1881–1889) and the Rijksmuseum (1876–1885), both in Amsterdam.

Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.


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Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and draughtsman.

Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and draughtsman.

Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, a self-portrait with Saskia, c. 1635
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, c. 1635
Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660
Rembrandt Memorial Marker Westerkerk Amsterdam
Rembrandt's only known seascape, The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990.
A Polish Nobleman, 1637
The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work has been described as "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of Baroque painting".
A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success
Self Portrait, 1658, Frick Collection, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits"
The Hundred Guilder Print, c. 1647–49, etching, drypoint and burin on Japan paper, National Museum of Western Art.
The Three Trees, 1643, etching
Rembrandt drawing of an Indian Mughal painting
Role-playing in self-portrait as an oriental potentate with a kris/keris, a Javanese blade weapon from the VOC era (etching, c. 1634)
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
The Polish Rider – Possibly a Lisowczyk on horseback
The Man with the Golden Helmet, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, is no longer attributed to the master.
Saskia as Flora, 1635
Slaughtered Ox (1655), Musée du Louvre, Paris
Rembrandt House Museum
Rembrandt statue and the sculptures of The Night Watch in 3D at the Rembrandtplein in Amsterdam
Rembrandt statue in Leiden
In 1775, a 25-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote in a letter that "I live wholly with Rembrandt" ("...ich zeichne, künstle p. Und lebe ganz mit Rembrandt."). At the age of 81 (1831), Goethe wrote the essay "Rembrandt der Denker" ("Rembrandt the Thinker"), published in the posthumous collection of his works.
The Jewish Bride, c. 1665–9, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. In Vincent van Gogh's own words (1885), "I should be happy to give 10 years of my life if I could go on sitting here in front of this picture [The Jewish Bride] fortnight, with only a crust of dry bread for food." In a letter to his brother Theo, Vincent wrote, "What an intimate, what an infinitely sympathetic picture it is,"
Rembrandt Laughing, 1628, J. Paul Getty Museum
The Girl in a Picture Frame, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw
The evangelist Matthew and the Angel, 1661
Moving Rembrandt's The Night Watch for the 1898 Rembrandt Exhibition
A young Rembrandt, c. 1628, when he was 22. Partly an exercise in chiaroscuro. Rijksmuseum
Self-Portrait in a Gorget, c. 1629; Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
Self-portrait, 1630, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Self-Portrait with Velvet Beret and Furred Mantle 1634
Self-portrait at the age of 34, 1640, National Gallery, London
Self-Portrait, oil on canvas, 1652. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Self-portrait, Vienna c. 1655, oil on walnut, cut down in size. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Self-Portrait, 1660
Self Portrait as Zeuxis, c. 1662. One of 2 painted self-portraits in which Rembrandt is turned to the left.<ref name="W1">White, 200</ref> Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Self-Portrait with Two Circles, c.1665–1669. Kenwood House, London
Self-portrait, 1669.
Self-portrait at the age of 63, dated 1669, the year he died. National Gallery, London
The Stoning of Saint Stephen, 1625, The first painting by Rembrandt, painted at the age of 19.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Starcky |first=Emmanuel |title=Rembrandt |publisher=Hazan |year=1990 |isbn=978-2-85025-212-9 |page=45}}</ref> It is currently kept in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon.
Artist in His Studio, 1628, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Bust of an old man with a fur hat, the artist's father, 1630
Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630
Andromeda, Circa 1630
The Philosopher in Meditation, 1632
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632
Portrait of Aeltje Uylenburgh, 1632, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, c. 1633–1634
Sacrifice of Isaac, 1635
The Blinding of Samson, 1636, which Rembrandt gave to Huyghens
Susanna, 1636
Belshassar's Feast, 1636-1638
Danaë, 1636 - c. 1643, Hermitage Museum
The Archangel Raphael Leaving Tobias' Family, 1637, Louvre
The Landscape with Good Samaritan, 1638, Czartoryski Museum, Kraków
Scholar at his Writing Table, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw
Joseph's Dream, c. 1645
Susanna and the Elders, 1647
The Mill, 1648
An Old Man in Red, 1652–1654
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, 1653, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York
Young Girl at the Window, 1654, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Portrait of Jan Six, a wealthy friend of Rembrandt, 1654
Bathsheba at Her Bath, modelled by Hendrickje, 1654
A Woman Bathing in a Stream, modelled by Hendrickje, 1654
Pallas Athene, c.1655
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deijman, 1656
Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph, 1656
Woman in a Doorway, 1657–1658
Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther, 1660
Saint Bartholomew, 1661, J. Paul Getty Museum
The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, 1662
The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (cut-down), 1661–62
Lucretia, 1666 (Minneapolis Institute of Art)
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 - Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Self-portrait, c. 1628–29, pen and brush and ink on paper
Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open, 1630, etching and burin
Seated Old Man (c.1630), red and black chalk on paper, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Suzannah and the Elders, 1634, drawing in Sanguine on paper, Kupferstichkabinett Berlin
Self-portrait with Saskia, 1636, etching, Rijksmuseum
An elephant, 1637, drawing in black chalk on paper, Albertina, Austria
Self-portrait leaning on a Sill, 1639, etching, National Gallery of Art
Christ and the woman taken in adultery, c. 1639–41, drawing in ink, Louvre
Beggars I., c. 1640–42, ink on paper, Warsaw University Library
The Windmill, 1641, etching
The Diemerdijk at Houtewael (near Amsterdam), 1648–49, pen and brown ink, brown wash, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
The Three Crosses, 1653, drypoint etching, state III of V, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Virgin and Child with a Cat, 1654, original copper etching plate above (the original copper plate), in Victoria and Albert Museum, example of the print below
Christ presented to the People, drypoint etching, 1655, state I of VIII, Rijksmuseum
Two Old Men in Conversation /Two Jews in Discussion, Walking, year unknown, black chalk and brown ink on paper, Teylers Museum
A a child being taught to walk (c. 1635). David Hockney said: "I think it's the greatest drawing ever done... It's a magnificent drawing, magnificent."<ref name="Hockney2014">{{Cite web |last=Lewis, Tim |date=16 November 2014 |title=David Hockney: 'When I'm working, I feel like Picasso, I feel I'm 30' |url=https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/16/david-hockney-interview-i-feel-like-picasso |access-date=16 June 2020 |website=The Guardian |quote=David Hockney (2014): "There's a drawing by Rembrandt, I think it's the greatest drawing ever done. It's in the British Museum and it's of a family teaching a child to walk, so it's a universal thing, everybody has experienced this or seen it happen. Everybody. I used to print out Rembrandt drawings big and give them to people and say: 'If you find a better drawing send it to me. But if you find a better one it will be by Goya or Michelangelo perhaps.' But I don't think there is one actually. It's a magnificent drawing, magnificent." |archive-date=16 May 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200516011950/https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/16/david-hockney-interview-i-feel-like-picasso |url-status=live }}</ref>
A young woman sleeping (c. 1654). Shows Rembrandt's calligraphic-style draughtsmanship.

A depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population.

The painting is now in the Rijksmuseum.


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The Concertgebouw in the Museumkwartier.
Zuidas business district.
Minervaplein, Apollobuurt.
Gerard Doustraat, Oude Pijp.

Amsterdam-Zuid (Amsterdam South) is a borough (stadsdeel) of Amsterdam, Netherlands.

South of the former wall, the first neighborhoods to develop were the Oude Pijp neighborhood, the neighborhood surrounding the Rijksmuseum, and the Willemspark neighborhood.

Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede (c. undefined 1670)

Jacob van Ruisdael

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Dutch painter, draughtsman, and etcher.

Dutch painter, draughtsman, and etcher.

Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede (c. undefined 1670)
Dune Landscape (1646)
View of Naarden with the Church at Muiderberg in the Distance (1647)
The Jewish Cemetery (c. undefined 1654–55)
View of Haarlem with Bleaching Fields (c. undefined 1665)
Signature on Landscape with Waterfall in the 1660s
Waterfall in a Mountainous Landscape with a Ruined Castle (c. undefined 1665–1670)
Dunes by the Sea (1648)
Winter Landscape with a Watermill (c. undefined 1660s)

In his late work, conducted when he lived and worked in Amsterdam, he added city panoramas and seascapes to his regular repertoire.

Today it is spread across private and institutional collections around the world; the National Gallery in London, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, and the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg hold the largest collections.

Dutch East India Company

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Chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia.

Chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia.

The "United East India Company", or "United East Indies Company" (also known by the abbreviation "VOC" in Dutch) was the brainchild of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading statesman of the Dutch Republic.
Amsterdam VOC HQ
Replica of the VOC ship Duyfken under sail
Founded in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), started off as a spice trader. In the same year, the VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO. "Going public" enabled the company to raise the vast sum of 6.5 million guilders quickly. The VOC's institutional innovations and business practices laid the foundations for the rise of modern-day global corporations and capital markets that now dominate the world's economic systems.
Japanese export porcelain plate (Arita ware) with the VOC's monogram logo
In terms of creating and sustaining an effective corporate identity (or corporate culture), the United East India Company (VOC) was a successful early pioneer at the dawn of modern capitalism.
17th century plaque to Dutch East India Company (VOC), Hoorn
The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC
VOC headquarters in Amsterdam
Return of the second Asia expedition of Jacob van Neck in 1599 by Cornelis Vroom
Mughal Bengal's baghlah was a type of ship widely used by Dutch traders in the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Malacca Straits and the South China Sea
Reproduction of a map of the city of Batavia c.1627, collection Tropenmuseum
Dutch Batavia in 1681, built in what is now North Jakarta
The Isle of Amboina, a 17th-century print, probably English
Graves of Dutch dignitaries in the ruined St. Paul's Church, Malacca, in the former Dutch Malacca
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Dutch settlement in Bengal Subah.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A print of the 1740 Batavia massacre
The Oost-Indisch Huis (Reinier Vinkeles, 1768)
A bond from the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged capital market (including the bond market and the stock market) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.
Various VOC soldier uniforms, c.1783
Both sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC
Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima, Nagasaki (1995)
Ground-plan of the Dutch trade-post on the island Dejima at Nagasaki. An imagined bird's-eye view of Dejima's layout and structures (copied from a woodblock print by Toshimaya Bunjiemon of 1780).
Overview of Fort Zeelandia (Fort Anping) in Tainan, Taiwan, painted around 1635 (National Bureau of Archives, The Hague)
The Dutch Square in Malacca, with Christ Church (centre) and the Stadthuys (right)
Gateway to the Castle of Good Hope, a bastion fort built by the VOC in the 17th century
One of the oldest known stock certificates, issued by the VOC Chamber of Enkhuizen, dated 9 September 1606.  The VOC was the first recorded joint-stock company to get a fixed capital stock. The VOC was also the first publicly listed company ever to pay regular dividends. The VOC was possibly in fact the first ever blue-chip stock. In Robert Shiller's words, the VOC was "the first real important stock" in the history of finance.
A 17th-century engraving depicting the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Amsterdam's old bourse, a.k.a. Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch), built by Hendrick de Keyser (c. 1612). The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser), launched by the Dutch East India Company in the early 1600s, was the world's first official (formal) stock exchange when it began trading the VOC's freely transferable securities, including bonds and shares of stock.
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser) by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The process of buying and selling the VOC's shares, on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, became the basis of the world's first official (formal) stock market, a milestone in the history of capitalism.
Crowd gathering on Wall Street (New York City) after the 1929 crash. The 1929 Wall Street Crash is often considered one of the worst stock market crashes in history. For better or worse, the VOC-created quasi-casino stock market system has profoundly influenced the evolution of the global economy since the Dutch Golden Age.
The Dam Square in Amsterdam, by Gerrit Adriaensz Berckheyde, c. 1660. In the picture of the centre of highly cosmopolitan and tolerant Amsterdam, Muslim/Oriental figures (possibly Ottoman or Moroccan merchants) are shown negotiating. While the VOC was a major force behind the economic miracle of the Dutch Republic in the 17th-century, the VOC's institutional innovations played a decisive role in the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of a (global) international financial centre.
The shipyard of the United East India Company (VOC) in Amsterdam (1726 engraving by Joseph Mulder). The shipbuilding district of Zaan, near Amsterdam, became one of the world's earliest known industrialized areas, with around 900 wind-powered sawmills at the end of the 17th century. By the early seventeenth century Dutch shipyards were producing a large number of ships to a standard design, allowing extensive division of labour, a specialization which further reduced unit costs.
Jan Vermeer's View of Delft (ca. 1660–61). During the Dutch Golden Age, the VOC significantly influenced Delft's economy, both directly and indirectly.
A replica of the VOC's Halve Maen (captained by Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch Republic) passes modern-day lower Manhattan, where the original ship would have sailed while investigating New York harbor
In the Age of Sail, the Brouwer Route, devised by VOC navigator Hendrik Brouwer in 1611, greatly reduced the voyage between Cape of Good Hope (Dutch Cape Colony) to Java (Dutch East Indies) from almost 12 months to about 6 months, compared to the previous Arab and Portuguese monsoon route. The Brouwer Route played a major role in the European discovery of the west coast of Australia.
A typical map from the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. Australasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s–1720s): including Nova Guinea (New Guinea), Nova Hollandia (mainland Australia), Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and Nova Zeelandia (New Zealand).
Australia (Nova Hollandia) was the last human-inhabited continent to be explored and mapped (by non-natives). The Dutch were the first to undisputedly explore and map Australia's coastline. In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast.
Detail from a 1657 map by Jan Janssonius, showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia
The VOC's economic activity in Mauritius largely contributed to the extinction of the dodo, a flightless bird that was endemic to the island. The first recorded mention of the dodo was by Dutch navigators in the late 1590s.
Natives of Arakan sell slaves to the Dutch East India Company, c.1663 CE.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, the founder of Cape Town, arriving in Table Bay in 1652
The statue of Willem de Vlamingh with the Hartog Plate, Vlieland
Monument to the "Tsar-Carpenter" Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) in St. Petersburg, Russia. In order to learn more about the 17th-century Dutch maritime power, Tsar Peter I came to work incognito as a ship's carpenter at the VOC's shipyards in Amsterdam and Zaandam/Saardam, for a period of four months (1697).
The Flying Dutchman by Albert Pinkham Ryder, c. 1887 (Smithsonian American Art Museum). The legend of the Flying Dutchman is likely to have originated from the 17th-century golden age of the VOC.
Cape Dutch style-influenced eclectic building of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Swellendam. The Cape Dutch architecture, along with Afrikaans language and Afrikaans literature, is among the lasting legacy of the VOC-era Afrikaans culture in South Africa.
Black, green, pink, and white peppercorns. In terms of spice trade, the VOC was an early pioneering model of the global supply chain in its modern sense. Dutch word "peperduur" – which literally translated as "pepper expensive" or "as expensive as pepper" – is an expression for something that is very costly.
VOC Trade Cloth, 1675–1725, with Mughal tent hanging / summer carpet motif. Made in India for the Indonesian market. Fine textiles from India were a popular luxury import into Indonesia, and some still survive as treasured heirlooms.
The arrival of King Charles II of England in Rotterdam, 24 May 1660 by Lieve Verschuier. King Charles II of England sailed from Breda to Delft in May 1660 in a yacht owned by the VOC. HMY Mary and HMY Bezan (both were built by the VOC) were given to Charles II, on the restoration of the monarchy, as part of the Dutch Gift.
Johan Nieuhof's An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces (1665).
The cover of the Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot Drakenstein.<ref>Manilal, K. S. (1984), 'Hortus Malabaricus and the Ethnoiatrical Knowledge of Ancient Malabar,'. Ancient Science of Life 4(2): 96–99</ref><ref>Manilal, K.S.: Hortus Malabaricus and the Socio-Cultural Heritage of India. (Calicut: Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy, 2012)</ref><ref>Dharmapalan, Biju (2012), 'Hortus Malabaricus: Celebrating the Tricentennial of a Botanic Epic,'. SR 49(10): 26–28</ref><ref>Manilal, K. S. (2005), 'Hortus Malabaricus, a book on the plants of Malabar, and its impact on the religious of Christianity and Hinduism in the 17th century Kerala,'. Indian Journal of Botanical Research 1(1): 13–28</ref>
Title page of Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750)
Title page of Hortus Cliffortianus (1737). The work was a collaboration between Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) and Georg Dionysius Ehret, financed by George Clifford III, one of the directors of the VOC.
Title page of Musa Cliffortiana (1736), Carl Linnaeus's first botanical monograph.
Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus) lived and studied for three years, from 1735 until 1738, in the Dutch Republic – a seminal period in his life and career (see articles Herman Boerhaave, Johannes Burman, Engelbert Kaempfer, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, Carl Peter Thunberg, George Clifford III and Hartekamp). VOC people's scientific contributions had a considerable influence on his work.<ref>Heniger, J.: Hendrik Adriaan van Reed tot Drakestein (1636–1691) and Hortus Malabaricus: A Contribution to the History of Dutch Colonial Botany. (Rotterdam: A.A.Balkema, 1986). Heniger (1986): "Allure by the fame of Dutch botany, the young Linnaeus here spent some years, 1735–1738, to complete his schooling."</ref><ref>Skott, Christina (2010), 'The VOC and Swedish Natural History: The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge in the Eighteenth Century,'; in Siegfried Huigen, Jan L. de Jong & Elmer Kolfin (eds.), The Dutch Trading Companies as Knowledge Networks. (Brill, 2010), pp. 361–392</ref><ref>Thijsse, Gerard (2018), 'A Contribution to the History of the Herbaria of George Clifford III (1685–1760),'. Archives of Natural History 45(1): 134–148. {{doi|10.3366/anh.2018.0489}}</ref><ref>Barth, Nadine; van Andel, Tinde (2018), 'Paul Hermann's Ceylon Herbarium (1672–1679) at Leiden, the Netherlands,'. Taxon 67(5): 977–988</ref><ref>Jarvis, C.E. (2019), 'Georg Rumphius' Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778),'. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 71: 87–107</ref>
Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg was a VOC physician and an apostle of Linnaeus.
With the support of Governor of the VOC-rule Dutch Cape Colony Ryk Tulbagh, French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille studied the stars of the southern hemisphere from 1750 until 1754 from Cape of Good Hope, when he was said to have observed more than 10,000 stars using a {{convert|0.5|in|mm}} refracting telescope.<ref name="Wisconsin-Madison">{{cite web|url=http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/extra/Lacaille.html|title=Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713–1762)|website=Department of Astronomy. University of Wisconsin-Madison|access-date=1 August 2016}}</ref> were newly created in 1763 by Lacaille appearing in his star catalogue, published in 1756.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lacaille.htm |title=Lacaille's southern planisphere |author=Ian Ridpath}}</ref>
Black swans on the shore of the Swan River (Western Australia), with the Perth skyline in the background. The thousand-year-old conclusion "all swans are white" was disproved by the VOC navigator Willem de Vlamingh's 1697 discovery.
Hansken, a young female Asian elephant from Dutch Ceylon, was brought to Amsterdam in 1637, aboard a VOC ship. Rembrandt's Hansken drawing is believed to be an early portrait of one of the first Asian elephants described by science.
Rembrandt's self-portrait as an oriental potentate with a kris/keris, a Javanese blade weapon from the VOC era (etching, c. 1634). Also, he was one of the first known western printmakers to extensively use (the VOC-imported) Japanese paper. It's important to note that some major figures of Dutch Golden Age art like Rembrandt and Vermeer never went abroad during their lifetime. More than just a for-profit corporation of the early modern world, the VOC was instrumental in 'bringing' the East (Orient) to the West (Occident),<ref>Seneviratne, Nadeera (2010), 'Globalising Hansken: An Elephant in The Netherlands,'; in Leelananda Prematilleke (ed.), Abhinandanamālā: Nandana Chutiwongs Felicitation Volume. (Bangkok: SPAFA Regional Centre of Archaeology and Fine Arts, 2010), pp. 259–273</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A research on the exchange of costume culture between Netherlands and Japan through 17th–18th century Dutch East India Company,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(4): 109–123</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A Study on Orientalism in the Paintings of Delft School in 17th Century Netherlands,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(8): 136–150</ref> <ref>Schrader, Stephanie; et al. (eds.): Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India. (Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2018) {{ISBN|978-1-60606-552-5}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India (catalogue)|url=http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/rembrandt_india/downloads/rembrandt_india_checklist.pdf|access-date=18 October 2019}}</ref> and vice versa.<ref>Sugita, Genpaku: Rangaku Kotohajime: Dawn of Western Science in Japan. Translated from the Japanese by Matsumoto Ryozo and Kiyooka Eiichi. (Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1968)</ref><ref>Goodman, Grant K.: Dutch Impact on Japan, 1640–1853. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967)</ref><ref>Nagazumi, Yōko (ed.): Large and Broad: The Dutch Impact on Early Modern Asia. Essays in Honor of Leonard Blussé. (Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 2010)</ref><ref>North, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta (eds.): Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014)</ref>
Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, by Dutch Golden Age painter Willem Kalf (c. 1660s). 17th-century Chinese export porcelain wares (imported by the VOC) are often depicted in many Dutch Golden Age genre and still-life paintings.
Shop window display of Delftware in the market place, Delft. East Asian–inspired Delftware, a lasting cultural and economic legacy of the VOC era.
Blaeu's Atlas Maior (1662–1672), a monumental multi-volume world atlas from the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s–1670s) and a widely recognized masterpiece in the history of mapmaking. Willem Blaeu and his son Joan Blaeu were both official cartographers to the VOC.
Regions of Oceania (including Australasia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia). "The Island Continent" Australia was the last human-inhabited continent to be largely known to the civilized world. The VOC's navigators were the first non-natives to undisputedly discover, explore and chart coastlines of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Tonga, and Fiji.
Abel Tasman's routes of the first and second voyage
Wall of Fort Zeelandia/Fort Anping, Tainan (Taiwan)
The Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop in Dutch), Cape Town, South Africa
The restored conference room of the {{ill|Heeren XVII|nl|Heren XVII}} (the VOC's board of directors) in the East Indies House/Oost-Indisch Huis, Amsterdam
A replica of the VOC vessel Batavia (1620–29)
19th-century illustration Halve Maen (Half Moon) in the Hudson River in 1609
Anonymous painting with Table Mountain in the background, 1762
Dutch church at Batavia, Dutch East Indies, 1682
A naval cannon (Dejima, Nagasaki, Japan). The letters "VOC" are the monogram of the "Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie" and the letter "A" represents the "Amsterdam" Chamber of the company.
The Seri Rambai at Fort Cornwallis, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
Aerial view of Galle Fort (Galle) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Sri Lanka
Malacca City (Malacca) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Malaysia
Sword of the East India Company, featuring the V.O.C. monogram of the guard. On display at the Musée de l'Armée in Paris.
VOC ships in Chittagong or Arakan.
City hall of Batavia in 1682 CE.
Frontispiece from Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique by François Levaillant
First Flag of the Dutch East India Company
Second Flag of the Dutch East India Company, adopted with red stripe around 1630 or 1663 and beyond, for the purpose of better visibility at sea against a light sky
Flag of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East Indies Company
Later flag of the Dutch East Indies, after Dutch East India Company was dissolved
Late 18th-century plate in European style, with Dutch/VOC ships, Canton porcelain, painted there on a "blank" from Jingdezhen.
Purchase Contract signed July 5, 1797, between 'Committee for the Affairs of East India Trade and Property' (on behalf of the Batavian Republic) and De Coninck Firm, notarised by Jan Harmsen. Since the VOC had incurred debts of millions, its Indian merchandise in Batavia was sold to the firm. The VOC was unable to send its ships; the firm itself was responsible for collecting the merchandise from Batavia. The merchandise included spices (Nutmeg, Cloves, Black and Brown pepper), dyes (Indigo, Sappan wood, Caliatour wood), Coffee, and Powdered sugar.
Kopi luwak, coffee seeds from faeces of palm civet, Lampung, Indonesia. Coffee cultivation in Indonesia began in the late 1600s and early 1700s, in the VOC period. Indonesia was the fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.

The VOC consisted of six Chambers (Kamers) in port cities: Amsterdam, Delft, Rotterdam, Enkhuizen, Middelburg and Hoorn.

He replaced it with one of his own, which included a copy of Hartog's inscription, and took the original plate home to Amsterdam, where it is still kept in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.