A report on Amsterdam and Utrecht

The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
Willem Blaeu's 1652 map of Utrecht
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
The Dom Tower seen from Downtown Utrecht. The remaining section of the Cathedral of Saint Martin is not connected to the tower since the collapse of the nave in 1674 due to a storm.
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
Lambert de Hondt (II): The Surrender of Utrecht on 30 June 1672 to the French king Louis XIV, 1672, Centraal Museum Utrecht
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
Prince Maurits in Utrecht, 31 July 1618
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
People celebrating the liberation of Utrecht at the end of World War II on 7 May 1945
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
Zadelstraat
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
Contemporary map of Utrecht
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
Panorama
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
Oudegracht (the 'old canal') in central Utrecht
Topographic map of Amsterdam
The Oudegracht in the 1890s
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
View of the Oudegracht from the Dom Tower
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
Aerial view of Utrecht from the Dom Tower
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
Utrecht Centraal railway station
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'' (The Inkpot) with fake UFO
A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
View on the Science Park campus of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Rokin – November 1977
Miffy statue at the Nijntjepleintje in Utrecht
Herengracht
The Rietveld Schröder House from 1924
Prinsengracht
Caryatids at the Winkel van Sinkel
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
Prins Clausbrug across the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
team pauses with their coach by the Muntbrug, a rotating bridge built in 1887.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
Duitse Huis in April 1982
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
Birthplace of Pope Adrian VI
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
Spiegelgracht
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Boroughs of Amsterdam
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Police headquarters of Amsterdam
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre

It was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city.

- Utrecht

In contrast to those other metropolises, Amsterdam was also surrounded by large towns such as Leiden (about 67,000), Rotterdam (45,000), Haarlem (38,000) and Utrecht (30,000).

- Amsterdam

14 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Netherlands

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Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.

Rotterdam

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Second largest city and municipality in the Netherlands.

Second largest city and municipality in the Netherlands.

Map of Rotterdam by Willem and Joan Blaeu (1652)
The Delftsevaart, c. 1890–1905
Nieuwe Markt, 1915
Rotterdam centre after the 1940 bombing of Rotterdam. The ruined St. Lawrence' Church has been restored
Tower blocks in the Kop van Zuid neighbourhood
Topographic map image of Rotterdam (city), as of September 2014
Satellite image of Rotterdam and its port
The 24 municipalities of the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area
Gebouw Delftse Poort, one of the tallest office buildings in the Netherlands
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.
The Waalhaven by night
Bronze statue of Erasmus created by Hendrick de Keyser in 1622
Rotterdam waterfront, with spotlights shining into the air to commemorate the Rotterdam Blitz
City decor for the Eurovision Song Contest 2021
Windmill Kralingse Bos
Dakpark Rotterdam
The Wilhelmina pier at the Kop van Zuid in the distance. A part of Rotterdam with many skyscrapers and high-rises. On the left the Erasmus Bridge can be seen.
The Cube Houses, popularly known as the Blaak-forest in 2014
The Markthal at night as seen from the Binnenrotte, Rotterdam center.
The Euromast in 2005.
The former headquarters of the Holland America Line next to modern residential architecture in 2010
Erasmus Bridge in 2011
Robin van Persie began his career with SBV Excelsior and broke through in Feyenoord.
De Kuip, Feyenoord home stadium.
Runners during the marathon in Rotterdam
Arthur Ashe at the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament
Bep van Klaveren
Francisco Elson
Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed to handle up to 320,000 passengers daily.
Map of the 2020 Rotterdam Metro
Rotterdam metro
A Citadis tram outside the former Rotterdam Centraal, 2008
Water Taxi in Rotterdam

There is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands.

Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht.

Randstad

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Bubble map showing the population sizes of larger towns and cities in the Randstad circa 2012
Amsterdam
Zuidas
The Hague
Rotterdam
Utrecht
A RandstadRail LRV between Zoetermeer and The Hague

The Randstad ("Rim" or "Edge" City) is a roughly crescent-shaped conurbation in the central-western Netherlands, consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht); their suburbs, and many towns in between, that all grew and merged into each other, containing almost half the country's population.

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Municipalities of the Netherlands

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As of 24 March 2022, there are 344 municipalities (gemeenten) and three special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten) in the Netherlands.

As of 24 March 2022, there are 344 municipalities (gemeenten) and three special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten) in the Netherlands.

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Amsterdam has the highest population with 893,783 residents, whereas The Hague is the most densely populated with a density of 6650 /km2.

The Hague, Almere, Breda, Eindhoven, Enschede, Groningen, Nijmegen, Tilburg and Utrecht have instituted stadsdelen as well, although they do not have the same legal submunicipal status.

The Hague

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City and municipality of the Netherlands, situated on the west coast facing the North Sea.

City and municipality of the Netherlands, situated on the west coast facing the North Sea.

The Binnenhof at the Hofvijver, 1625
Street in The Hague by Sybrand van Beest, c. 1650, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Old City Hall of The Hague around 1900
The Ministry of Justice and Security building, opened in 2012
Detailed topographic map of The Hague, 2014
The Hague, divided into neighbourhoods
The Hofvijver and the buildings housing the States General of the Netherlands
View of the Hoftoren (left) and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (the triangular gable right)
The Hague City Hall
The Peace Palace houses the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of Arbitration amongst other institutions.
International Criminal Court
Meeting in the Hall of Knights during the Congress of Europe (9 May 1948)
The Hague's central financial district, Beatrixkwartier, with the modern tram viaduct called the Netkous ("Fishnet stocking")
Cars Jeans Stadion
Modern RegioCitadis tram on route 2, Loosduinen, April 2012
Internal view of The Hague Central station
The Ridderzaal inside the Binnenhof, the political centre of the Netherlands
Monument commemorating the founding of the Kingdom of the Netherlands at Plein 1813
Noordeinde Palace
Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk

With a population of over half a million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

The Randstad, which also includes among others Amsterdam and Utrecht, has a population of 6,659,300.

Rhine

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One of the major European rivers.

One of the major European rivers.

Map of the Rhine (for interactive map click here: )
Lake Toma, seen from the upstream end
The confluence of the Anterior Rhine to the lower left and the Posterior Rhine in the back, forming the Alpine Rhine to the left next to Reichenau
Map of the Alpine Rhine
The Rhine between Sargans (Switzerland, left) and Balzers (Liechtenstein, right) with the Gonzen (1829 m, left), the Girrenspitz (2099 m) in the back, and the Maziferchopf (855 m) to the right
Aerial image of the mouth of the Rhine into Lake Constance
Satellite image. In the center and on the right (i.e. to the east) the larger part of Lake Constance, called the Obersee, is visible, and it includes, in the lower right, the Delta of the Alpine Rhine. The northwesterly "finger" (on the top left) is Lake Überlingen, containing the island of Mainau. Below Lake Überlingen (also in the west) is the smaller Untersee, containing Reichenau Island. The Obersee and Untersee are connected by the four kilometers long Seerhein. On the left the High Rhine can be seen.
Distance markers along the Rhine indicate distances from this bridge in Constance
The 555 km marker, downstream from the Lorelei
The High Rhine
The Rhine Fall at Schaffhausen (Switzerland)
View of the Mainz Basin downstreams of Mainz, from Eltville and Erbach to Bingen
View of the Middle Rhine Valley and Burg Katz, in the background Lorelei
Low water in Düsseldorf
The Lower Rhine at Emmerich
The central and northern parts of the Rhine-Meuse delta
Changing the Meuse estuary in 1904: light blue old course, dark blue today's course
Map showing how the waters of the Rhine and Meuse rivers split into various branches of their combined delta
The Nederrijn at Arnhem
Schematic cross section of the Upper Rhine Graben
Loreley
Castellum Nigrum Pullum, Zwammerdam, The Netherlands, artist impression Stevie Xinas
French forces under Louis XIV cross the Rhine into the Netherlands in 1672
Allied soldiers of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment crossing the Rhine into Germany after the end of WWI, December 1918
Soldiers of the US 89th Infantry Division cross the Rhine in assault boats under German fire as part of Operation Plunder on 24 March 1945
The Rhine at Mannheim, in the Rhine-Neckar industrial area

Duisburg is the home of Europe's largest inland port and functions as a hub to the sea ports of Rotterdam, Antwerp and Amsterdam.

From Wijk bij Duurstede, the old north branch of the Rhine is called Kromme Rijn ("Bent Rhine") past Utrecht, first Leidse Rijn ("Rhine of Leiden") and then, Oude Rijn ("Old Rhine").

Rembrandt The Night Watch (1642)

Dutch Golden Age

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Period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Rampjaar, "Disaster Year"), in which Dutch trade, science, and art and the Dutch military were among the most acclaimed in Europe.

Period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic) to 1672 (the Rampjaar, "Disaster Year"), in which Dutch trade, science, and art and the Dutch military were among the most acclaimed in Europe.

Rembrandt The Night Watch (1642)
Fishing for Souls, allegory of the Protestant-Catholic struggle
A river landscape with fishermen in rowing boats, windmills beyond, 1679
Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt, depicting wealthy Amsterdam burghers.
The Dutch had the largest merchant fleet in Europe in the 17th century
The Trip brothers, arms traders, built the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam, currently the seat of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, which is a typical example of 17th-century architecture.
Canal in Leiden
A family portrait, second half of the 17th century
The Dancing Couple, by Jan Steen, 1663
Interior of the Laurenskerk in Rotterdam, c. 1664
Astronomer, by Gerrit Dou, c. 1650
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek by Jan Verkolje.
Osias Beert the Elder, Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, Candy and Wine, c. 1620/1625
Johannes Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Earring
The Kaaswaag (Cheese Weigh House) in Gouda, finished in 1667, was designed by architect Pieter Post (1608–1669), as was the Waag in Leiden.

Many of those moving north settled in Amsterdam, transforming what was a small harbor into one of the most important ports and commercial centres in the world by 1630.

The cities with a predominantly Catholic background, such as Utrecht and Gouda, did not enjoy the benefits of the Golden Age.

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789

Dutch Republic

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Federal republic which existed from 1588, during the Dutch Revolt, to 1795 (the Batavian Revolution).

Federal republic which existed from 1588, during the Dutch Revolt, to 1795 (the Batavian Revolution).

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Overijssel – 1734
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Amsterdam Stock Exchange courtyard, 1653
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Utrecht – 1772
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Holland – 1780
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Friesland – 1784
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Zeeland – 1790
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Gelderland – 1792
Silver coin: 3 gulder Utrecht –- 1795
The united provinces, with Drenthe and the Generality Lands
Sermon at the Oude Kerk at Delft, 1651
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Painting by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665

Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles.

Despite having contributed much in the War of the Spanish Succession, the Dutch Republic gained little from the peace talks in Utrecht (1713).

The County of Holland around 1350.

County of Holland

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State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1433 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1433 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1581 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

The County of Holland around 1350.
Rorik of Dorestad in a 1912 illustration by Hermanus Willem Koekkoek
The County of Holland around 1350.
Dirk VI, Count of Holland, 1114–1157, and his mother Petronella visiting the work on the Egmond Abbey, Charles Rochussen, 1881.
Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen and Pieter Post, 1654.
The County of Holland in the 15th century
A 1558 map of Holland.
The Relief of Leiden by the Geuzen in 1574, by Otto van Veen.
Dam Square with the New Town Hall under Construction, by Johannes Lingelbach, 1656.

According to Thietmar of Merseburg a reconciliation with the Frisians was arranged with help from his uncle in-law, king Henry II, who travelled with an army and a fleet from Utrecht to the Maas-estuary (probably Vlaardingen) to force the inhabitants to recognize their count.

The largest cities in the republic were situated in the province of Holland, such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Leiden, Alkmaar, Delft, Dordrecht, Haarlem, and the nation's capital, The Hague.

Nederlandse Spoorwegen

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Dutch company, the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands.

Dutch company, the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands.

The Hoofdgebouw I (Main Building I) complex in Utrecht, former Nederlandse Spoorwegen headquarters and nowadays the office of DB Cargo in the Netherlands
Protests against neoliberal policies in 1983
Current headquarters in Utrecht
NS trains at Arnhem Centraal
A NS Dagretour (one-time chip card), from Rijssen to Almelo and back.
Logo at Maastricht station in 2010
Merseyrail Class 508 at Ellesmere Port in June 2012
Abellio Greater Anglia Class 90 at Stratford in October 2014
NS International ICE 3 in June 2014

The NS covers most of the country, with almost all cities connected, mostly with a service frequency of two trains an hour or more and at least four trains per hour between all of the largest five cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Eindhoven) as well as some smaller cities (Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Arnhem, 's-Hertogenbosch, Dordrecht and Leiden).