A report on Amsterdam

The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
Topographic map of Amsterdam
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
Rokin – November 1977
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Boroughs of Amsterdam
Police headquarters of Amsterdam
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre

Capital and most populous city of the Netherlands; with a population of 907,976 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area.

- Amsterdam

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North Sea Canal

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Historic map of Velsen showing the western portion of the IJ and the planned route of the canal.
Landscape of canal
Mouth and locks at the North Sea.
Entrance to the South Locks from sea. Being the oldest locks in the complex, they are now the main passage for recreational vessels and smaller inland ships.

The North Sea Canal (Noordzeekanaal) is a Dutch ship canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea at IJmuiden, constructed between 1865 and 1876 to enable seafaring vessels to reach the port of Amsterdam.

Amsterdam circa 1544, before the semi-circular ring of canals was added.

History of Amsterdam

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Amsterdam circa 1544, before the semi-circular ring of canals was added.
Amsterdam in 1649, with the first section of canal ring added.
Amsterdam around 1662. The ring of canals is now complete.
Amsterdam and surroundings around 1770. The expansion has come to a standstill.
The Gift Letter of 1275
Het Houten Huys, Begijnhof - a rare wooden house from before the fire of 1452
Dam Square in the late 17th century: painting by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde (Gemäldegalerie, Dresden)
Overview of the personal family relationships of the Amsterdam oligarchy between the regent-dynasties Boelens Loen, De Graeff, Bicker (van Swieten), Witsen and Johan de Witt in the Dutch Golden Age
Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal canal, c. 1686
Amsterdam's Dam Square, 17th century
Coat of arms of Amsterdam. The three crosses are thought to suggest the three plagues which have affected the city: flood, fire, and pestilence.
Dam Square, Amsterdam as it appeared c. 1890–1900 with the "Naatje of the Dam" statue.
Statue of Anne Frank
Protest in Amsterdam against the deployment of Pershing II missiles in Europe, 1981

Amsterdam has a long and eventful history.

Map of Amstelland


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Map of Amstelland
1681 map of "Rhenolandia, Amstelandia". Amstelland is roughly the area on the lower centre part of the map.
Aerial view of northern part of Amstelland, including the wedge-shaped green area jutting into Amsterdam
1898 map of Amstelland
The Magere Brug in Amsterdam
The Amstel and Amstelland as seen from the Utrechtsbrug just south of Amsterdam
Nes aan de Amstel
Amstelland countryside near Nes aan de Amstel
Street scene in Amstelveen
De Zwaan windmill, near Ouderkerk aan de Amstel
Thamerkerk in Uithoorn
River Amstel south of Uithoorn

Amstelland is the area along the river Amstel in the Netherlands, beginning in South Holland and running north towards Amsterdam in southern North Holland.

Dutch Empire

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The Dutch Empire or Dutch colonial empire (Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company—and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815.

The Dutch Empire or Dutch colonial empire (Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company—and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815.

The formal declaration of independence of the Dutch provinces from the Spanish king, Philip II
São Luís, Maranhão, Dutch Brazil
Olinda, Pernambuco, Dutch Brazil
The Portuguese victory at the Battle of Guararapes, ended Dutch presence in Brazil.
Primary Dutch and Portuguese settlements in Asia, c. 1665. With the exception of Jakarta and Deshima, all had been captured by the Dutch East India Company from Portugal.
Overview of Fort Zeelandia on the island of Formosa, 17th century
Batavia, built in what is now Jakarta, 1682
Dutch conquests in the West Indies and Brazil
Flag of Dutch Brazil
Reprint of a 1650 map of New Netherland
View of Table Bay with ships of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1683
Dejima trading post in Japan, c. 1805
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch colonial possessions around 1840. Included are the Dutch East Indies, Curaçao and Dependencies, Suriname, and the Dutch Gold Coast.
Logo of the VOC
Sukarno, leader of the Indonesian independence movement
Dutch colonists in Suriname, 1920. Most Europeans left after independence in 1975.
Contemporary countries and federated states which were significantly colonised by the Dutch. In the Netherlands, these countries are sometimes known as verwantschapslanden (kindred countries).
Boer Voortrekkers in South Africa
Dutch family in Java, 1902
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
The Stadthuys in Malacca, Malaysia, believed to be the oldest Dutch building in Asia
The Stadhuis of Batavia, said to be modelled after the Dam Palace itself.
Christian cross, altar, pulpit, and organ in the Dutch Reformed Church in Vosburg, South Africa.
Gedung Sate, an early 20th century colonial building which incorporates modern Western neo-classical style with indigenous elements in Bandung, Indonesia.
The Great Post Road (Grote Postweg), spanning West to East Java
Dutch plantation in Mughal Bengal, 1665
The Dutch Empire in 1630
The Dutch Empire in 1650
The Dutch Empire in 1674
The Dutch Empire in 1700
The Dutch Empire in 1750{{Citation needed|date=December 2020}}
The Dutch Empire in 1795{{Citation needed|date=December 2020}}
The Dutch Empire in 1830
The Dutch Empire prior to World War II
The Dutch Empire in 1960
The Dutch Empire in 1975

The war with Spain led many financiers and traders to emigrate from Antwerp, a major city in Flanders and then one of Europe's most important commercial centres, to Dutch cities, particularly Amsterdam, which became Europe's foremost centre for shipping, banking, and insurance.

The Hague

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City and municipality of the Netherlands, situated on the west coast facing the North Sea.

City and municipality of the Netherlands, situated on the west coast facing the North Sea.

The Binnenhof at the Hofvijver, 1625
Street in The Hague by Sybrand van Beest, c. 1650, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Old City Hall of The Hague around 1900
The Ministry of Justice and Security building, opened in 2012
Detailed topographic map of The Hague, 2014
The Hague, divided into neighbourhoods
The Hofvijver and the buildings housing the States General of the Netherlands
View of the Hoftoren (left) and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (the triangular gable right)
The Hague City Hall
The Peace Palace houses the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of Arbitration amongst other institutions.
International Criminal Court
Meeting in the Hall of Knights during the Congress of Europe (9 May 1948)
The Hague's central financial district, Beatrixkwartier, with the modern tram viaduct called the Netkous ("Fishnet stocking")
Cars Jeans Stadion
Modern RegioCitadis tram on route 2, Loosduinen, April 2012
Internal view of The Hague Central station
The Ridderzaal inside the Binnenhof, the political centre of the Netherlands
Monument commemorating the founding of the Kingdom of the Netherlands at Plein 1813
Noordeinde Palace
Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk

With a population of over half a million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

Hanseatic League

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Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe.

Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe.

The Hanseatic League was a powerful economic and defensive alliance that left a great cultural and architectural heritage. It is especially renowned for its Brick Gothic monuments, such as Stralsund's St. Nikolai Church and its City Hall, shown here. UNESCO lists the old town of Stralsund, together with Wismar, as a World Heritage Site.
Foundation of the alliance between Lübeck and Hamburg
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League
Town Hall of Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia)
Stargard Mill Gate, Pomerania, today in Poland
Georg Giese from Danzig, 34-year-old German Hanseatic merchant at the Steelyard, painted in London by Hans Holbein
View of the in the port city of Gdańsk (Danzig), today in Poland
Hanseatic museum in Bergen, Norway
Heinrich Sudermann
Modern, faithful painting of the Adler von Lübeck – the world's largest ship in its time
Hanseatic Seal of Elbing (now Elbląg)
Hanseatic Seal of Stralsund
Map of the Hanseatic League, showing principal Hanseatic cities
The Oostershuis, a kontor in Antwerp
The Hanseatic Warehouse in King's Lynn is the only surviving League building in England
Europe in 1097
Europe in 1430
Europe in 1470
Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539)

In the Dutch–Hanseatic War (1438–1441), the merchants of Amsterdam sought and eventually won free access to the Baltic and broke the Hanseatic monopoly.

The Damrak in 2005, as viewed from Dam Square.


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The Damrak in 2005, as viewed from Dam Square.
A birdseye view of Amsterdam circa 1544, looking south. The Damrak is the waterway at the center.
The dancing houses at the Damrak.
Typical architecture of the Damrak.

The Damrak is an avenue and partially filled in canal at the centre of Amsterdam, running between Amsterdam Centraal in the north and Dam Square in the south.

Stelling van Amsterdam

Stelling van Amsterdam

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Stelling van Amsterdam
Fort south of Spaarndam.
Muizenfort in Muiden.
Fortifications on Pampus island.

The UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the Defence Line of Amsterdam (in Dutch named Stelling van Amsterdam, ) is a 135 km ring of fortifications around Amsterdam.

ING Group

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An ING Bank in Nieuw-Vennep, the Netherlands
ING Wholesale Banking, London office
ING New York City Marathon

The ING Group (ING Groep) is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Amsterdam.


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View of the Herengracht
Keizersgracht, 2008

The Grachtengordel (known in English as the Canal District) is a neighborhood in Amsterdam, Netherlands located in the Centrum district.