A report on Amsterdam

The Oude Kerk was consecrated in 1306 AD.
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 30 January 1648. Painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was the first stock exchange to introduce continuous trade in the early 17th century.
View of Vijzelstraat looking towards the Muntplein, 1891
Photochrom of Amsterdam's Dam Square at the beginning of the 20th century
The rebuilt Magere Brug, around 1938.
People celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands at the end of World War II on 8 May 1945
The 17th-century Canals of Amsterdam were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2010, contributing to Amsterdam's fame as the "Venice of the North". Along with De Wallen, the canals are the focal-point for tourists in the city.
Satellite picture of Amsterdam and North Sea Canal
Topographic map of Amsterdam
Large-scale map of the city centre of Amsterdam, including sightseeing markers,.
Nieuwendammerdijk en Buiksloterdijk, Amsterdam-Noord, winter 2010
The Westerkerk in the Centrum borough, one of Amsterdam's best-known churches
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A 1538 painting by Cornelis Anthonisz showing a bird's-eye view of Amsterdam. The famous Grachtengordel had not yet been established.
Rokin – November 1977
Herengracht
Prinsengracht
The Egelantiersgracht lies west of the Grachtengordel, in the Jordaan neighbourhood.
The Scheepvaarthuis, by architects Johan van der Mey, Michel de Klerk, Piet Kramer is characteristic of the architecture of the Amsterdam School.
The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam.
The Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam and Conservatorium van Amsterdam, two examples of 21st-century architecture in the centre of the city
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world
The Zuidas, the city's main business district
Boats give tours of the city, such as this one in front of the EYE Film Institute Netherlands.
Spiegelgracht
De Wallen, Amsterdam's Red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell cannabis. It is one of the main tourist attractions.
An Amsterdammer waits for a traffic light to change at the Muntplein in the heart of Amsterdam.
The Rijksmuseum houses Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
The Van Gogh Museum houses the world's largest collection of Van Gogh's paintings and letters.
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam is an international museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art and design.
Rembrandt monument on Rembrandtplein
Coldplay performing at the Amsterdam Arena, 2016
The Concertgebouw or Royal Concert Hall houses performances of the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra and other musical events.
Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam's best-known theatre
One of the decorated boats participating in the 2013 Canal Parade of the Amsterdam Gay Pride
AFC Ajax player Johan Cruyff, 1967
Femke Halsema has been the Mayor of Amsterdam since 2018.
Boroughs of Amsterdam
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Police headquarters of Amsterdam
King Willem-Alexander, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Máxima greeting Amsterdammers from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam during Willem-Alexanders inauguration in 2013
A tram crossing the Keizersgracht
The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed subway and above ground rapid transit system consisting of five lines.
Amsterdam Centraal station, the city's main train station
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol ranks as Europe's third-busiest airport for passenger traffic.
Police bicyclist crossing a bridge over the Prinsengracht
Bicyclist at Amsterdam
The Agnietenkapel Gate at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre

Capital and most populous city of the Netherlands; with a population of 907,976 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area.

- Amsterdam

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Overall

Dutch Finis Belli, a fortified ship meant to break the Spanish blockade.

Fall of Antwerp

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The Fall of Antwerp on 17 August 1585 took place during the Eighty Years' War, after a siege lasting over a year from July 1584 until August 1585.

The Fall of Antwerp on 17 August 1585 took place during the Eighty Years' War, after a siege lasting over a year from July 1584 until August 1585.

Dutch Finis Belli, a fortified ship meant to break the Spanish blockade.
Parma nearly died during the attack on his pontoon bridge in 1585. Famiano Strada: Histoire de la guerre des Païs-Bas, 1727.
Defeat of the rebels on the Kouwensteinsedijk near the pontoon bridge, 26 May 1585. Lamberecht Causé in Famiano Strada Histoire de la guerre des Païs Bas, 1727.

Many migrated north, especially to Amsterdam, which became the capital of the Dutch Republic.

Spui in 2008

Spui (Amsterdam)

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The Spui (.

The Spui (.

Spui in 2008
Spui in 2008
The statue Het Lieverdje
The English/Dutch piece of Een vertaling van de ene taal in de andere
The Helios building
Spui in the centre of Amsterdam, summer 2013
Spui 10

In Old Dutch written as Spuy) is a square in the centre of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.

Amsterdam-Oost

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Linnaeusstraat, Oosterparkbuurt.
Javastraat, Indische Buurt.
View on KNSM-eiland, Oostelijk Havengebied.

Amsterdam-Oost is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands, established in May 2010 after a merger of the former boroughs of Zeeburg and Oost-Watergraafsmeer.

Aalsmeer

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Municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.

Municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.

Aalsmeer in 1866.
Topographic map of Aalsmeer, June 2015
Aalsmeer Town Hall
Flower Auction Aalsmeer.
The Water Tower of Aalsmeer was completed in 1928 in an Art Deco style.
Windmill: stellingmolen De Leeuw
Peter R. de Vries, 1995

The town is located 13 km (8 mi) southwest of Amsterdam.

Flea market on Waterlooplein in 2005

Waterlooplein

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Flea market on Waterlooplein in 2005
Waterlooplein flea market

Waterlooplein (Waterloo Square) is a square in the centre of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

Portrait by Adriaen Thomasz. Key, c. 1570–84

William the Silent

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The main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.

The main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.

Portrait by Adriaen Thomasz. Key, c. 1570–84
Philip II of Spain berating William the Silent by Cornelis Kruseman
The triumphal entry of the Prince of Orange in Brussels. Print from The Wars of Nassau by Willem Baudartius.
William the Silent by Willem Jacobsz Delff
William of Orange engraving by Stephen Alonzo Schoff
The Duke of Anjou, who had been recruited by William as the new sovereign of the Netherlands, was hugely unpopular with the public.
Bullet holes from the murder at the Prinsenhof
Tomb of William of Orange

This event was followed by other cities opening their gates for the Watergeuzen, and soon most cities in Holland and Zeeland were in the hands of the rebels, notable exceptions being Amsterdam and Middelburg.

The Begijnhof of Amsterdam

Begijnhof, Amsterdam

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The Begijnhof of Amsterdam
Begijnhof, 2015
The Wooden House

The Begijnhof is one of the oldest hofjes in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Rhine

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One of the major European rivers.

One of the major European rivers.

Map of the Rhine (for interactive map click here: )
Lake Toma, seen from the upstream end
The confluence of the Anterior Rhine to the lower left and the Posterior Rhine in the back, forming the Alpine Rhine to the left next to Reichenau
Map of the Alpine Rhine
The Rhine between Sargans (Switzerland, left) and Balzers (Liechtenstein, right) with the Gonzen (1829 m, left), the Girrenspitz (2099 m) in the back, and the Maziferchopf (855 m) to the right
Aerial image of the mouth of the Rhine into Lake Constance
Satellite image. In the center and on the right (i.e. to the east) the larger part of Lake Constance, called the Obersee, is visible, and it includes, in the lower right, the Delta of the Alpine Rhine. The northwesterly "finger" (on the top left) is Lake Überlingen, containing the island of Mainau. Below Lake Überlingen (also in the west) is the smaller Untersee, containing Reichenau Island. The Obersee and Untersee are connected by the four kilometers long Seerhein. On the left the High Rhine can be seen.
Distance markers along the Rhine indicate distances from this bridge in Constance
The 555 km marker, downstream from the Lorelei
The High Rhine
The Rhine Fall at Schaffhausen (Switzerland)
View of the Mainz Basin downstreams of Mainz, from Eltville and Erbach to Bingen
View of the Middle Rhine Valley and Burg Katz, in the background Lorelei
Low water in Düsseldorf
The Lower Rhine at Emmerich
The central and northern parts of the Rhine-Meuse delta
Changing the Meuse estuary in 1904: light blue old course, dark blue today's course
Map showing how the waters of the Rhine and Meuse rivers split into various branches of their combined delta
The Nederrijn at Arnhem
Schematic cross section of the Upper Rhine Graben
Loreley
Castellum Nigrum Pullum, Zwammerdam, The Netherlands, artist impression Stevie Xinas
French forces under Louis XIV cross the Rhine into the Netherlands in 1672
Allied soldiers of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment crossing the Rhine into Germany after the end of WWI, December 1918
Soldiers of the US 89th Infantry Division cross the Rhine in assault boats under German fire as part of Operation Plunder on 24 March 1945
The Rhine at Mannheim, in the Rhine-Neckar industrial area

Duisburg is the home of Europe's largest inland port and functions as a hub to the sea ports of Rotterdam, Antwerp and Amsterdam.

Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal

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A view of the city hall from {{Lang|nl|Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal|italic=no}} by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde, 1686
{{Lang|nl|Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal|italic=no}} before filling in the canal
View towards {{Lang|nl|Nieuwe Kerk|italic=no}} after the canal has been filled in, circa 1900 by George Hendrik Breitner
Former De Telegraaf head office and printing press building
A former police outpost at {{Lang|nl|Postzegelmarkt|italic=no}}
The old post office, now Magna Plaza

The Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal is a street in the centre of Amsterdam.

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789

Dutch Republic

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Federal republic which existed from 1588, during the Dutch Revolt, to 1795 (the Batavian Revolution).

Federal republic which existed from 1588, during the Dutch Revolt, to 1795 (the Batavian Revolution).

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Overijssel – 1734
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Amsterdam Stock Exchange courtyard, 1653
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Utrecht – 1772
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Holland – 1780
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Friesland – 1784
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Zeeland – 1790
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Gelderland – 1792
Silver coin: 3 gulder Utrecht –- 1795
The united provinces, with Drenthe and the Generality Lands
Sermon at the Oude Kerk at Delft, 1651
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Painting by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665

Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles.