An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingEssay on Human UnderstandingAn Essay on Human UnderstandingEssayEssay concerning the Human UnderstandingLocke's great essay
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.wikipedia
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John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
Sydenham had a major effect on Locke's natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

Tabula rasa

blank slatetabulae rasaeblank tablet
He describes the mind at birth as a blank slate (tabula rasa, although he did not use those actual words) filled later through experience.
The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

Empiricism

empiricistempiricalempirically
The essay was one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.
The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

Personal identity

identityoneselfself-identify
He also offers a theory of personal identity, offering a largely psychological criterion.
Book II Chapter XXVII entitled "On Identity and Diversity" in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) has been said to be one of the first modern conceptualizations of consciousness as the repeated self-identification of oneself.

Innatism

innate ideasinnate ideainnate knowledge
Book I of the Essay is Locke's attempt to refute the rationalist notion of innate ideas.
Locke, in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, suggests that the concept of universal assent in fact proves nothing, except perhaps that everyone is in agreement; in short universal assent proves that there is universal assent and nothing else.

Semiotics

semioticsemioticiansemiology
In the last chapter of the book, Locke introduces the major classification of sciences into physics, semiotics, and ethics.
John Locke used the term sem(e)iotike in book four, chapter 21 of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
In 1704 the rationalist Gottfried Leibniz wrote a response to Locke's work in the form of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal, the Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain ("New Essays on Human Understanding").
Between 1695 and 1705, he composed his New Essays on Human Understanding, a lengthy commentary on John Locke's 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, but upon learning of Locke's 1704 death, lost the desire to publish it, so that the New Essays were not published until 1765.

New Essays on Human Understanding

Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humainNew Essays Concerning Human UnderstandingNew Essays
In 1704 the rationalist Gottfried Leibniz wrote a response to Locke's work in the form of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal, the Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain ("New Essays on Human Understanding").
New Essays on Human Understanding (Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain) is a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal by Gottfried Leibniz of John Locke's major work, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

Louisa Capper

LouisaLouisa née Capper
Louisa Capper wrote An Abridgment of Locke's Essay concerning the Human Understanding, published in 1811.
She is chiefly remembered for writing An Abridgment of Locke's Essay concerning the Human Understanding, published in 1811.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
John Locke describes his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) as an inquiry "into the original, certainty, and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion, and assent".

John Wynne (bishop)

John WynneBishop John Wynne
John Wynne published An Abridgment of Mr. Locke's Essay concerning the Human Understanding, with Locke's approval, in 1696.
He published only three of his sermons and, in 1696, an abridgment of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, with Locke's approval, which was translated into French and Italian.

Experience

experiencesexperiencedexperiential
He describes the mind at birth as a blank slate (tabula rasa, although he did not use those actual words) filled later through experience.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
The essay was one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

George Berkeley

BerkeleyBishop BerkeleyEsse est percipi
The essay was one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

Rationalism

rationalistrationalistsrationalistic
Book I of the Essay is Locke's attempt to refute the rationalist notion of innate ideas.

Intuition

intuitiveintuitivelyIntuition (knowledge)
Book III is concerned with language, and Book IV with knowledge, including intuition, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy ("science"), faith, and opinion.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
Book III is concerned with language, and Book IV with knowledge, including intuition, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy ("science"), faith, and opinion.

Faith

religious faithfaithsfaith-based
Book III is concerned with language, and Book IV with knowledge, including intuition, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy ("science"), faith, and opinion.

Opinion

opinionsscientific opinionViews
Book III is concerned with language, and Book IV with knowledge, including intuition, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy ("science"), faith, and opinion.

Psychological nativism

nativistnativisminnate
Book I of the Essay is devoted to an attack on nativism or the doctrine of innate ideas; Locke indeed sought to rebut a prevalent view, of innate ideas, that was vehemently held by philosophers of his time.

Identity (social science)

identitysocial identityidentities
He took the time to argue against a number of propositions that rationalists offer as universally accepted truth, for instance the principle of identity, pointing out that at the very least children and idiots are often unaware of these propositions.

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene Descartes
Whereas Book I is intended to reject the doctrine of innate ideas proposed by Descartes and the rationalists, Book II explains that every idea is derived from experience either by sensation – direct sensory information – or reflection – "the perception of the operations of our own mind within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got".

Self-reflection

reflectionHuman self-reflectionreflective
Whereas Book I is intended to reject the doctrine of innate ideas proposed by Descartes and the rationalists, Book II explains that every idea is derived from experience either by sensation – direct sensory information – or reflection – "the perception of the operations of our own mind within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got".

Port-Royal Logic

La Logique ou l’Art de PenserLogique de Port-RoyalPort Royal Logic
Locke followed the Port-Royal Logique (1662) in numbering among the abuses of language those that he calls "affected obscurity" in chapter 10.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
In the last chapter of the book, Locke introduces the major classification of sciences into physics, semiotics, and ethics.