A report on Analgesic

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates
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Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

- Analgesic
Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates

47 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Avicenna discouraged opium's use except as a last resort, preferring to address the causes of pain rather than trying to minimize it with analgesics.

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins

Morphine

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A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins
Before the Morphine by Santiago Rusiñol
Morphine Hydrochloride Ampoule for Veterinary Use
Latex bleeding from a freshly-scored seed pod
Morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy
Chemical structure of morphine. The benzylisoquinoline backbone is shown in green.
Morphine structure showing its standard ring lettering and carbon numbering system.
Same structure, but in a three-dimensional perspective.
First generation production of alkaloids from licit latex-derived opium
Friedrich Sertürner
Advertisement for curing morphine addiction, c. 1900
An ampoule of morphine with integral needle for immediate use. Also known as a "syrette". From WWII. On display at the Army Medical Services Museum.
Example of different morphine tablets
Two capsules (5 mg & 10 mg) of morphine sulfate extended- release
1 milliliter ampoule containing 10 mg of morphine

Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies (Papaver somniferum).

Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors

Pain management

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Aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain in various dimensions, from acute and simple to chronic and challenging.

Aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain in various dimensions, from acute and simple to chronic and challenging.

Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors
Young children can indicate their level of pain by pointing to the appropriate face on a children's pain scale

Pain sometimes resolves quickly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, and is treated by one practitioner, with drugs such as pain relievers (analgesics) and occasionally also anxiolytics.

film-coated 200 mg tablets of generic ibuprofen, a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

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film-coated 200 mg tablets of generic ibuprofen, a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
NSAID identification on label of generic ibuprofen, an over-the-counter drug (OTC) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
Burana 600 mg – ibuprofen package
One of the first advertisements for Bayer Aspirin, published in The New York Times in 1917
Kolbe–Schmitt reaction mechanism

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are members of a therapeutic drug class which reduces pain, decreases inflammation, decreases fever, and prevents blood clots.

Packages of medication

Medication

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Drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

Drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

Packages of medication
Pharmacists are medication experts.
A medication is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
February 1918 drawing by Marguerite Martyn of a visiting nurse in St. Louis, Missouri, with medicine and babies

2) Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers)

Anesthesia

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State of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes.

State of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes.

The anesthetic area of an operating room
A vaporizer holds a liquid anesthetic and converts it to gas for inhalation (in this case sevoflurane)
Syringes prepared with medications that are expected to be used during an operation under general anesthesia maintained by sevoflurane gas:
 – Propofol, a hypnotic
 – Ephedrine, in case of hypotension
 – Fentanyl, for analgesia
 – Atracurium, for neuromuscular blockade
 – Glycopyrronium bromide (here under trade name "Robinul"), reducing secretions
An anesthetic machine with integrated systems for monitoring of several vital parameters.
A patient-controlled analgesia infusion pump, configured for epidural administration of fentanyl and bupivacainefor postoperative analgesia
Anesthesia-related deaths by ASA status
Hua Tuo
Sir Humphry Davy's Researches chemical and philosophical: chiefly concerning nitrous oxide (1800), pp. 556 and 557 (right), outlining potential anesthetic properties of nitrous oxide in relieving pain during surgery.
Contemporary re-enactment of Morton's 16 October 1846, ether operation; daguerrotype by Southworth & Hawes
Morton's ether inhaler

The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, hypnotics, dissociatives, sedatives, adjuncts, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotics, and analgesics.

Leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum novogranatense var. Novogranatense), from which cocaine, a naturally occurring local anesthetic, is derived.

Anesthetic

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Drug used to induce anesthesia ⁠— ⁠in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness.

Drug used to induce anesthesia ⁠— ⁠in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness.

Leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum novogranatense var. Novogranatense), from which cocaine, a naturally occurring local anesthetic, is derived.
Chemical structure of isoflurane, widely used for inhalational anesthesia.

Anesthetics are distinct from analgesics, which block only sensation of painful stimuli.

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Pethidine

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Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.

Generic tramadol HCl tablets marketed by Amneal Pharmaceuticals

Tramadol

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Generic tramadol HCl tablets marketed by Amneal Pharmaceuticals
Tramadol HCl for injection
Foil pack of 10 Utracet tablets
Main side effects of tramadol: Red color denotes more serious effects, requiring immediate contact with health provider.
Desmetramadol.

Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.

Woman with migraine headache

Migraine

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Neurological disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

Neurological disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

Woman with migraine headache
Animation of cortical spreading depression
The Head Ache, George Cruikshank (1819)
A trepanated skull, from the Neolithic. The perimeter of the hole in the skull is rounded off by ingrowth of new bony tissue, indicating that the person survived the operation.

Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.