Analog recording

Discrete sampled signal

Technique used for the recording of analog signals which, among many possibilities, allows analog audio for later playback.

- Analog recording

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Analog signal

Any continuous signal representing some other quantity, i.e., analogous to another quantity.

Discrete sampled signal

An analog signal is subject to electronic noise and distortion introduced by communication channels, recording and signal processing operations, which can progressively degrade the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Magnetic storage

Storage of data on a magnetized medium.

Longitudinal recording and perpendicular recording, two types of writing heads on a hard disk.
The programmable calculators of the HP-41-series (from 1979) could store data via an external magnetic tape storage device on microcassettes
Hard drives use magnetic memory to store giga- and terabytes of data in computers.

Analog recording is based on the fact that remnant magnetisation of a given material depends on the magnitude of the applied field.

Tape recorder

Sound recording and reproduction device that records and plays back sounds usually using magnetic tape for storage.

A reel-to-reel tape recorder from Akai, c. 1978
This tape recorder of Dr. Goodale is exhibited in the private Phonograph Museum in Mariazell, Austria.
Magnetic wire recorder, invented by Valdemar Poulsen, 1898. It is exhibited at Brede works Industrial Museum, Lyngby, Denmark.
Marconi-Stille steel tape recorder at BBC studios, London, 1937
Magnetophon from a German radio station in World War II
EMI BTR2 machines in a BBC recording room, 12 November 1961.
Early model Studer professional tape recorder, 1969
Compact cassette
Solidyne GMS200 tape recorder with computer self-adjustment. Argentina 1980–1990
A typical portable desktop cassette recorder from RadioShack.
Otari MX-80 24-track with 2-inch reels
Klaudia Wilde from the German WDR radio archive with a broadcast tape from 1990. This is a centre hub with only a very short length of tape wound round it.
Editing magnetic tape

Since some early refinements improved the fidelity of the reproduced sound, magnetic tape has been the highest quality analog recording medium available.

Recording studio

Specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds.

Control room at the Tec de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus
An audio production facility at An-Najah National University
A Mexican son jarocho singer recording tracks at the Tec de Monterrey studios
Neve VR60, a multitrack mixing console. Above the console are a range of studio monitor speakers.
Engineers and producers watch a trumpet player from a window in the control room during a recording session.
A selection of instruments at a music studio, including a grand piano
Music production using a digital audio workstation (DAW) with multi-monitor set-up
Allen & Heath GS3000 analog mixing console in a home studio
The Siemens Studio for Electronic Music ca. 1956.
Donna Summer wearing headphones during a recording session in 1977
Danny Knicely records with Furnace Mountain Band in Virginia (2012)
The studio at Ridge Radio in Caterham, England

The typical recording studio consists of a room called the "studio" or "live room" equipped with microphones and mic stands, where instrumentalists and vocalists perform; and the "control room", where audio engineers, sometimes with record producers, as well, operate professional audio mixing consoles, effects units, or computers with specialized software suites to mix, manipulate (e.g., by adjusting the equalization and adding effects) and route the sound for analog or digital recording.


Several Dictabelts

The Dictabelt, in early years and much less commonly also called a Memobelt, is an analog audio recording medium commercially introduced by the American Dictaphone company in 1947.

Commodore Datasette

Commodore's dedicated magnetic tape data storage device.

The third, most common version of the 1530 C2N Datassette
The connection cable to the Datasette
The Datasette loading process
Inside the Datasette
The resulting waveform from storing data
The C2N Cassette Unit, the original Datasette model shape
Datassette 1531
One of the few clones, a Phonemark model 4403

The Datasette has built-in analog-to-digital converters and audio filters to convert the computer's digital data into analog audio and vice versa.


Method of mitigating the detrimental effects of a channel with limited dynamic range.

A signal before (top) and after μ-law compression (bottom)

Companding is employed in telephony and other audio applications such as professional wireless microphones and analog recording.

Group delay and phase delay

Linear time-invariant , such as a microphone, coaxial cable, amplifier, loudspeaker, telecommunications system or ethernet cable.

Figure 1: Outer and Inner LTI Devices

This distortion can cause problems such as poor fidelity in analog video and analog audio, or a high bit-error rate in a digital bit stream.

Gary Wright

American singer, songwriter, musician, and composer best known for his 1976 hit songs "Dream Weaver" and "Love Is Alive", and for his role in helping establish the synthesizer as a leading instrument in rock and pop music.

Wright performing in 2011
Wright performing in 2016

Shawn Perry of credits Wright with being "as responsible for the emergence of the synthesizer as a mainstream instrument as Keith Emerson and ... Rick Wakeman", while Robert Rodriguez describes Wright as a pioneer in both "the integration of synthesizers into analog recordings" and the use of the keyboard–guitar hybrid known as the keytar.

Instant replay

Video reproduction of something that recently occurred which was both shot and broadcast live.

EVS LSM remotes in an OB Production Truck
Umpires in St.Louis await the ruling.
NBA referees reviewing a play
VAR monitor at the Estadio Monumental David Arellano
Assistant video assistant referees in action during a Saudi Professional League match
A Major League Soccer referee reviewing a play using a sideline monitor
A VAR decision during an FA Cup match at the Etihad Stadium, Manchester.
Instant Replay booth at Raymond James Stadium
Referee (left) talking with the replay official
The video referee confirms a Try during an Australia vs Great Britain match in the 2006 Rugby League Tri-Nations
Hawk-Eye in use at Wimbledon.

Replay from analog disk storage was tried out by CBS in 1965, and commercialized in 1967 by the Ampex HS-100, which had a 30-second capacity and freeze frame capability.