Analog television

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Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.wikipedia
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Digital television transition

digital switchoveranalog shutdowntransition
Motivated by the lower bandwidth requirements of compressed digital signals, since the 2000s a digital television transition is proceeding in most countries of the world, with different deadlines for cessation of analog broadcasts.
The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover (DSO), the analog switch-off (ASO), the digital migration, or the analog shutdown, is the process in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television.

Television

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Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.
Until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s.

Digital television

digitaldigital TVDTV
All broadcast television systems used analog signals before the arrival of digital television (DTV).

NTSC

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The colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, and then use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) carrier.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee, is the analog television color system that was introduced in North America in 1954 and stayed in use until digital conversion.

PAL

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The colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, and then use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) carrier.
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).

SECAM

SÉCAMCIS-SECAMSECAM L
The colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, and then use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) carrier.
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (, Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analog color television system first used in France.

Cable television

cablecable TVcable channel
Analog television may be wireless (terrestrial television and satellite television) or can be distributed over a cable network using cable converters (cable television).
Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation.

Broadcast television systems

broadcast television systembroadcast TVbroadcast
All broadcast television systems used analog signals before the arrival of digital television (DTV).
There were three main analog television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.

Digital subchannel

subchanneldigital multicastsubchannels
In many countries, over-the-air broadcast television of analog audio and analog video signals has been discontinued, to allow the re-use of the television broadcast radio spectrum for other services such as datacasting and subchannels.
By convention, the suffix position ".1" is normally used to refer to the station's main digital channel and the ".0" position is reserved for analog channels.

Datacasting

datacastdata broadcastingInternet Protocol Datacasting
In many countries, over-the-air broadcast television of analog audio and analog video signals has been discontinued, to allow the re-use of the television broadcast radio spectrum for other services such as datacasting and subchannels.
It most often refers to supplemental information sent by television stations along with digital terrestrial television, but may also be applied to digital signals on analog TV or radio.

Television channel

channelTV channeltelevision channels
The transmission system must include a means of television channel selection.
Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given regional n, analog television channels are typically 6, 7, or 8 MHz in bandwidth, and therefore television channel frequencies vary as well.

Raster scan

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A cathode-ray tube (CRT) television displays an image by scanning a beam of electrons across the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines known as a raster.
Analog television has discrete scan lines (discrete vertical resolution), but does not have discrete pixels (horizontal resolution) – it instead varies the signal continuously over the scan line.

Multichannel television sound

MTSMTS stereoBTSC
Until the advent of the NICAM and MTS systems, television sound transmissions were invariably monophonic.
Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an analog NTSC-format audio carrier.

Chrominance

chromachroma signalcolor
A practical television system needs to take luminance, chrominance (in a color system), synchronization (horizontal and vertical), and audio signals, and broadcast them over a radio transmission.
In analog television, chrominance is encoded into a video signal using a subcarrier frequency.

Video

analog videovideo albumvideo recording
In many countries, over-the-air broadcast television of analog audio and analog video signals has been discontinued, to allow the re-use of the television broadcast radio spectrum for other services such as datacasting and subchannels.
This surrounding margin is known as a blanking interval or blanking region; the horizontal and vertical front porch and back porch are the building blocks of the blanking interval.

Television antenna

antennaTV antennareception
Many dual system television receivers, equipped to receive both analog transmissions and digital transmissions have analog tuner receiving capability and must use a television antenna.
In the previous standard analog television, used before 2006, the VHF and UHF bands required separate tuners in the television receiver, which had separate antenna inputs.

Tuner (radio)

tunerTV tunertuners
Many dual system television receivers, equipped to receive both analog transmissions and digital transmissions have analog tuner receiving capability and must use a television antenna.
A television tuner converts a radio frequency analog television or digital television transmission into audio and video signals which can be further processed to produce sound and a picture.

Video line selector

Counting sync pulses, a video line selector picks a selected line from a TV signal, used for teletext, on-screen displays, station identification logos as well as in the industry when cameras were used as a sensor.
A video line selector is an electronic circuit or device for picking a line from an analog video signal.

Composite video

compositeCVBScomposite video signal
The video carrier is demodulated to give a composite video signal; this contains luminance, chrominance and synchronization signals; this is identical to the video signal format used by analog video devices such as VCRs or CCTV cameras.
A gated and filtered signal derived from the color subcarrier, called the burst or colorburst, is added to the horizontal blanking interval of each line (excluding lines in the vertical sync interval) as a synchronizing signal and amplitude reference for the chrominance signals.

Very high frequency

VHFVHF radioVHF band
The colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, and then use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) carrier.
In the Americas and many other parts of the world, VHF Band I was used for the transmission of analog television.

Horizontal blanking interval

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The front porch is the first component of the horizontal blanking interval which also contains the horizontal sync pulse and the back porch.

Screen tearing

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Since the frame buffer of a computer graphics display imitates the dynamics of a cathode-ray display, if it is updated with a new image while the image is being transmitted to the display, the display shows a mishmash of both frames, producing a page tearing artifact partway down the image.
Vertical synchronization is an option in most systems in which the video card is prevented from doing anything visible to the display memory until after the monitor finishes its current refresh cycle.

Cathode-ray tube

cathode ray tubeCRTcathode ray tubes
A cathode-ray tube (CRT) television displays an image by scanning a beam of electrons across the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines known as a raster. Analog television did not really begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube (CRT), which uses a focused electron beam to trace lines across a phosphor coated surface.
These are found in analog phosphor storage oscilloscopes.

Digital terrestrial television

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The new broadcast band allocation would result in Malaysia's having to build an infrastructure for all broadcasters, using a single digital terrestrial transmission/television broadcast (DTTB) channel.
DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, and has largely replaced analog which had been in common use since the middle of the 20th century.

YUV

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Instead, the RGB signals are converted into YUV form, where the Y signal represents the lightness and darkness (luminance) of the colors in the image.
The primary advantage of luma/chroma systems such as Y′UV, and its relatives Y′IQ and YDbDr, is that they remain compatible with black and white analog television (largely due to the work of Georges Valensi).