A report on Analog television

Early monochrome analog receiver with large dials for volume control and channel selection, and smaller ones for fine-tuning, brightness, contrast, and horizontal and vertical hold adjustments
Raster scanning is performed from left-to-right and top-to-bottom. Once the screen has been scanned, the beam returns to the beginning of the first line.
Close up image of analog color screen
NTSC composite video signal (analog)
A waterfall display showing an 20ms long interlaced PAL frame with high FFT resolution
Portion of a PAL videosignal. From left to right: end of a video line, front porch, horizontal sync pulse, back porch with color burst, and beginning of next line
Color bar generator test signal
Color signals mixed with the video signal (two horizontal lines in sequence)
Test card showing "Hanover bars" (color banding phase effect) in the PAL-S (simple) signal mode of transmission.
Beginning of the frame, showing several scan lines; the terminal part of the vertical sync pulse is at the left
PAL video signal frames. Left to right: frame with scan lines (overlapping together, horizontal sync pulses show as the doubled straight horizontal lines), vertical blanking interval with vertical sync (shows as brightness increase of the bottom part of the signal in almost the leftmost part of the vertical blanking interval), entire frame, another VBI with VSYNC, beginning of the third frame
Analyzing a PAL signal and decoding the 20ms frame and 64µs lines

Original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.

- Analog television
Early monochrome analog receiver with large dials for volume control and channel selection, and smaller ones for fine-tuning, brightness, contrast, and horizontal and vertical hold adjustments

28 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL (blue)

NTSC

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Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL (blue)
NTSC 1953 colorimetry color cube (color profile encoded, requires a compatible browser and monitor for accurate display).
SMPTE C color cube (color profile encoded, requires a compatible browser and monitor for accurate display).
Spectrum of a System M television channel with NTSC color
The SMPTE color bars, an example of a test pattern

The National Television System Committee (NTSC) developed the analog television format encoding system that was introduced in North America in 1954 and stayed in use until digital conversion.

Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL (blue).

SECAM

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Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL (blue).
Chromat 2062, East German–produced dual standard PAL/SECAM TV set
Spectrum of a SECAM broadcast, with colour (red) and sound (green, yellow) sub-carrier frequencies

SECAM, also written SÉCAM (, Système Électronique Couleur Avec Mémoire, French for electronic color system with memory), is an analog color television system first used in France.

Flat-screen televisions for sale at a consumer electronics store in 2008

Television

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Telecommunication medium for transmitting moving images and sound.

Telecommunication medium for transmitting moving images and sound.

Flat-screen televisions for sale at a consumer electronics store in 2008
The Nipkow disk. This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes that may also be square for greater precision. The area of the disk outlined in black displays the region scanned.
Baird in 1925 with his televisor equipment and dummies "James" and "Stooky Bill" (right)
Vladimir Zworykin demonstrates electronic television (1929)
Ad for the beginning of experimental television broadcasting in New York City by RCA in 1939
Indian-head test pattern used during the black-and-white era before 1970. It was displayed when a television station first signed on every day.
Samsung LED TV
Color bars used in a test pattern, sometimes used when no program material is available.
A smart TV
A modern high gain UHF Yagi television antenna. It has 17 directors, and one reflector (made of 4 rods) shaped as a corner reflector.
Coaxial cable is used to carry cable television signals into cathode-ray tube and flat panel television sets.
DBS satellite dishes installed on an apartment complex.
RCA 630-TS, the first mass-produced television set, which sold in 1946–1947
A 14-inch cathode-ray tube showing its deflection coils and electron guns
The Christie Mirage 5000, a 2001 DLP projector.
A generic LCD TV, with speakers on either side of the screen.
OLED TV
Comparison of 8K UHDTV, 4K UHDTV, HDTV and SDTV resolution
Television sets per 1000 people of the world
Television was still in its experimental phase in 1928, but the medium's potential to sell goods was already predicted.
American family watching television, circa 1958

Until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television was expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s.

Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL or PAL/SECAM (blue).

PAL

7 links

Analog television encoding systems by nation; NTSC (green), SECAM (orange), and PAL or PAL/SECAM (blue).
Un-decoded PAL image, showing chroma information as fine patterns chroma dots (click to zoom) overlapping the luma signal
Decoded PAL image, with chroma fully recovered. Some minor artifacts (see dot crawl) are present across transition areas (click to zoom)
Spectrum of a System I television channel with PAL.
RF spectrogram and waterfall of an actual PAL-I transmission with NICAM.
Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—one frame.
Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—several lines.
Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—two lines.
A waterfall display showing an 20ms long interlaced PAL frame with high FFT resolution
Analyzing a PAL signal and decoding the 20ms frame and 64µs lines
The composite video (CVBS) signal used in systems M and N before combination with a sound carrier and modulation onto an RF carrier.

Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television.

VHF television antennas used for broadcast television reception. These six antennas are a type known as a Yagi antenna, which is widely used at VHF

Very high frequency

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ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter.

ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter.

VHF television antennas used for broadcast television reception. These six antennas are a type known as a Yagi antenna, which is widely used at VHF
"Rabbit-ears" VHF television antenna (the small loop is a separate UHF antenna).
A VHF television broadcasting antenna. This is a common type called a super turnstile or batwing antenna.
A plan showing VHF use in television, FM radio, amateur radio, marine radio and aviation.

In the Americas and many other parts of the world, VHF Band I was used for the transmission of analog television.

Analog colour television encoding systems by nation

Broadcast television systems

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Broadcast television systems (or terrestrial television systems outside the US and Canada) are the encoding or formatting standards for the transmission and reception of terrestrial television signals.

Broadcast television systems (or terrestrial television systems outside the US and Canada) are the encoding or formatting standards for the transmission and reception of terrestrial television signals.

Analog colour television encoding systems by nation
DTT broadcasting systems.

Analog television systems were standardized by the International Telecommunication Union in 1961, with each standard designated by a letter (A-M) in combination with the color system used (NTSC, PAL or SECAM) - for example PAL-B, NTSC-M, etc.).

A mock-up of a 1930s EMI Emitron 405-line television camera, constructed for the 1986 BBC drama Fools on the Hill

405-line television system

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A mock-up of a 1930s EMI Emitron 405-line television camera, constructed for the 1986 BBC drama Fools on the Hill

The 405-line monochrome analogue television broadcasting system was the first fully electronic television system to be used in regular broadcasting.

Luminance only, Chrominance only, and full color image.

Chrominance

6 links

Signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture (see YUV color model), separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y' for short).

Signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture (see YUV color model), separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y' for short).

Luminance only, Chrominance only, and full color image.

In analog television, chrominance is encoded into a video signal using a subcarrier frequency.

World map of digital television transition progress:
 Transition completed; all analogue signals terminated
 Transition partially completed; some analogue signals terminated
 Transition in progress; broadcasting both analogue and digital signals
 Transition has not been planned or started, or is in early stages
 No digital switchover planned, broadcasting both analogue and digital signals

Digital television transition

3 links

World map of digital television transition progress:
 Transition completed; all analogue signals terminated
 Transition partially completed; some analogue signals terminated
 Transition in progress; broadcasting both analogue and digital signals
 Transition has not been planned or started, or is in early stages
 No digital switchover planned, broadcasting both analogue and digital signals
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Finland.
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Spain
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Japan.
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Brazil.
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Indonesia.
A image taken from the 2009 DTV transition in the U.S

The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover (DSO), the analogue switch/sign-off (ASO), the digital migration, or the analogue shutdown, is the process in which older analogue television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television.

A coaxial cable used to carry cable television onto subscribers' premises

Cable television

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System of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fibre-optic cables.

System of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fibre-optic cables.

A coaxial cable used to carry cable television onto subscribers' premises
A set-top box, an electronic device which cable subscribers use to connect the cable signal to their television sets. Presented unit is a Cisco RNG200N for QAM digital cable television system used in North America.
A cable television distribution box (left) in the basement of a building in Germany (Kabel BW network, now Vodafone), with a splitter (right) which supplies the signal to separate cables which go to different rooms
Diagram of a modern hybrid fiber-coaxial cable television system. At the regional headend, the TV channels are sent multiplexed on a light beam which travels through optical fiber trunklines, which fan out from distribution hubs to optical nodes in local communities. Here the light signal from the fiber is translated to a radio frequency electrical signal, which is distributed through coaxial cable to individual subscriber homes.

Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation.