Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian PlateauAsiaAnatolian PeninsulaAnatolianAsian TurkeyAnadoluAsia-MinorAsian
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.wikipedia
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Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

Aegean Sea

AegeanAegean coastAgean sea
The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west.
The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas.

Medieval Greek

Byzantine GreekGreekByzantine
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.
The conquests of Alexander the Great, and the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure.

Bosporus

BosphorusBosphorus StraitBosphorous
The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Europe.
It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and divides Turkey by separating Anatolia from Thrace.

Dardanelles

HellespontDardanelles StraitÇanakkale Boğazı
The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Europe.
, is a narrow, natural strait and internationally significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

Modern Greek

GreekModernModern Greek language
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.
As shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular already before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor, Constantinople, and Cyprus.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries.
It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were largely replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme (Ἀνατολικόν θέμα "the Eastern theme") was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region, centered around Iconium, but ruled from the city of Amorium.
During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.

Turkification

TurkifiedTurkicizedTurkify
The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries.
An early form of Turkification occurred in the time of the Seljuk Empire among the local population of Anatolia, involving intermarriages, religious conversion, linguistic shift and interethnic relationships, which today is reflected in the genetic makeup of the modern Turkish people.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Europe.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή (Anatolḗ "[sun] rise", "east", hence Anatolia).

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

AssyrianAssyrian languageSuret
However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian and Greek.
Assyrian-speakers are native to Upper Mesopotamia, Iranian Azerbaijan, southeastern Anatolia and the northeastern Levant, which is a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia in northwestern Iran through to the Erbil, Kirkuk and Duhok regions in northern Iraq, together with the northern regions of Syria and to southcentral and southeastern Turkey.

Galatians (people)

GalatiansGalatianCeltic invaders
Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian and Aeolian Greeks.
The Galatians (Galatae, Galati, Gallograeci; Γαλάτες) were a Gallic (Celtic) people of the Hellenistic period that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey.

Hattians

HattianHattiHattic
Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian and Aeolian Greeks.
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia (present-day Turkey).

Hurrians

HurrianHurrian mythologyHurri
Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian and Aeolian Greeks.
They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language called Hurrian and lived in Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia.

Lydian language

LydianMaeonianLyd.
Major Anatolian languages included Hittite, Luwian, and Lydian, among other more poorly attested relatives.
Lydian (𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤸𐤯𐤦𐤳 Śfardẽtis "[language] of Sardis") is an extinct Indo-European Anatolian language spoken in the region of Lydia, in western Anatolia (now in Turkey).

Asia

AsianAsian continentAsian countries
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.
By it he means Anatolia and the Persian Empire, in contrast to Greece and Egypt.

Hittite language

HittiteHitt.Old Hittite
Major Anatolian languages included Hittite, Luwian, and Lydian, among other more poorly attested relatives.
After the collapse of the Hittite Empire during the more general Late Bronze Age collapse, Luwian emerged in the Early Iron Age as the main language of the so-called Syro-Hittite states, in southwestern Anatolia and northern Syria.

Armenian Highlands

Armenian HighlandArmeniaArmenian Plateau
The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west.
To its west is the Anatolian plateau, which rises slowly from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea and converges with the Armenian Highlands to the east of Cappadocia.

Anatolian peoples

AnatolianAnatoliansAnatolian people
The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were largely replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods.
Christopher I. Beckwith suggests that the Anatolian peoples initially gained a foothold in Anatolia after being hired by the Hattians to fight other invading Indo-European groups.

Aeolic Greek

AeolicAeolic dialectThessalian
Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian and Aeolian Greeks.
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek, also known as Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect, is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

Sea of Marmara

Marmara SeaPropontisMarmara
The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Europe.
With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatolia.

Eastern Anatolia Region

Eastern AnatoliaEastern TurkeyEast Anatolia
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region.
This name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula approximately in the 5th or 4th centuries B.C. During the Ottoman era, the term Anadolou included the north-eastern vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center.

Theme (Byzantine district)

themethemathemes
In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme (Ἀνατολικόν θέμα "the Eastern theme") was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region, centered around Iconium, but ruled from the city of Amorium.
The Sassanid Empire was pressing from the east on Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia.

Anatolic Theme

AnatolikonAnatolicsAnatolic
In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme (Ἀνατολικόν θέμα "the Eastern theme") was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region, centered around Iconium, but ruled from the city of Amorium.
The Anatolic Theme (Άνατολικόν [θέμα], Anatolikon [thema]), more properly known as the Theme of the Anatolics (Greek: θέμα Άνατολικῶν, thema Anatolikōn) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) in central Asia Minor (modern Turkey).

Amorium

Amorionold city
In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme (Ἀνατολικόν θέμα "the Eastern theme") was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region, centered around Iconium, but ruled from the city of Amorium.
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838.