A report on Anatomy

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A dissected body, lying prone on a table, by Charles Landseer
Stylized cutaway diagram of an animal cell (with flagella)
Hyaline cartilage at high magnification (H&E stain)
Gastric mucosa at low magnification (H&E stain)
Cross section through skeletal muscle and a small nerve at high magnification (H&E stain)
Mouse skull
Cutaway diagram showing various organs of a fish
Skeleton of Surinam horned frog (Ceratophrys cornuta)
Plastic model of a frog
Skeleton of a diamondback rattlesnake
Part of a wing. Albrecht Dürer, c. 1500–1512
Modern anatomic technique showing sagittal sections of the head as seen by an MRI scan
In the human, the development of skilled hand movements and increased brain size is likely to have evolved simultaneously.
Head of a male Daphnia, a planktonic crustacean
Image of early rendition of anatomy findings
An anatomy thangka, part of Desi Sangye Gyatso's The Blue Beryl, 17th century
Surgical instruments were invented for the first time in history by Abulcasis in the 11th century
Anatomy of the eye for the first time in history by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the 9th century
13th century anatomical illustration
Anatomical study of the arm, by Leonardo da Vinci, (about 1510)
Anatomical chart in Vesalius's Epitome, 1543
Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt – Anatomy lesson of Dr. Willem van der Meer, 1617
An electron microscope from 1973
Anatomical study of the arm, by Leonardo da Vinci, (about 1510)

Branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

- Anatomy
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45 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Female (left) and male (right) adult human bodies photographed in ventral (above) and dorsal (below) perspectives. Naturally-occurring pubic, body, and facial hair has been deliberately removed to show anatomy

Human body

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Structure of a human being.

Structure of a human being.

Female (left) and male (right) adult human bodies photographed in ventral (above) and dorsal (below) perspectives. Naturally-occurring pubic, body, and facial hair has been deliberately removed to show anatomy
Diagram of the human heart
Digestive system
Skin
Nervous system
Internal gross anatomy of the male reproductive system
External female reproductive system with mons pubis highlighted
Internal gross anatomy of the female reproductive system
Female urinary system
Cavities of human body
Baby being carried
Anatomical study by Leonardo da Vinci
Figure drawing by Lovis Corinth (before 1925)
Two facing pages of text with woodcuts of naked male and female figures, in the Epitome by Andreas Vesalius, 1543

The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665

Biology

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Scientific study of life.

Scientific study of life.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665
In 1842, Charles Darwin penned his first sketch of On the Origin of Species.
In the Bohr model of an atom, electrons (blue dot) orbit around an atomic nucleus (red-filled circle) in specific atomic orbitals (grey empty circles).
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Organic compounds such as glucose are vital to organisms.
A phospholipid bilayer consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, with the hydrophilic tails facing inwards and the hydrophobic heads facing outwards.
The (a) primary, (b) secondary, (c) tertiary, and (d) quaternary structures of a hemoglobin protein
Structure of an animal cell depicting various organelles
Structure of a plant cell
Example of an enzyme-catalysed exothermic reaction
Respiration in a eukaryotic cell
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
In meiosis, the chromosomes duplicate and the homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis I. The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II to form haploid gametes.
Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
Bases lie between two spiraling DNA strands.
The extended central dogma of molecular biology includes all the processes involved in the flow of genetic information.
Regulation of various stages of gene expression
Composition of the human genome
Construction of recombinant DNA, in which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid vector
Model of concentration gradient building up; fine yellow-orange outlines are cell boundaries.
Natural selection for darker traits
Comparison of allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation
Bacteria – Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (-=1 Micrometer)
Archaea – Halobacteria
Diversity of protists
Diversity of plants
Diversity of fungi. Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; bread covered in mold; chytrid; Aspergillus conidiophore.
Bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall
Root and shoot systems in a eudicot
The xylem (blue) transports water and minerals from the roots upwards whereas the phloem (orange) transports carbohydrates between organs.
Reproduction and development in sporophytes
Negative feedback is necessary for maintaining homeostasis such as keeping body temperature constant.
Diffusion of water and ions in and out of a freshwater fish
Different digestive systems in marine fishes
Respiratory system in a bird
Circulatory systems in arthropods, fish, reptiles, and birds/mammals
Asynchronous muscles power flight in most insects. a: Wings b: Wing joint c: Dorsoventral muscles power upstrokes d: Dorsolongitudinal muscles power downstrokes.
Mouse pyramidal neurons (green) and GABAergic neurons (red)
Sexual reproduction in dragonflies
Cleavage in zebrafish embryo
Processes in the primary immune response
Brood parasites, such as the cuckoo, provide a supernormal stimulus to the parenting species.
Terrestrial biomes are shaped by temperature and precipitation.
Reaching carrying capacity through a logistic growth curve
A (a) trophic pyramid and a (b) simplified food web. The trophic pyramid represents the biomass at each level.
Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. Effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity, are not included.
Efforts are made to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia, without affecting visitors' access.

Biologists are able to study life at multiple levels of organization, from the molecular biology of a cell to the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and evolution of populations.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.

Galen

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Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

An 18th century engraving by Georg P. Busch.
Galen dissecting a monkey, as imagined by Veloso Salgado in 1906
An interpretation of Galen's human "physiological system"
Modern statue of Galen in his home town, Pergamon
De curandi ratione
A group of physicians in an image from the Vienna Dioscurides; Galen is depicted top center.
De Pulsibus (c.1550), Galen's treatise on the pulse, in Greek and Latin.

Considered to be one of the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

Dissection of a pregnant rat in a biology class

Dissection

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Dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.

Dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.

Dissection of a pregnant rat in a biology class
Dissection tools. Left to right: scalpels with No. 20 and No. 12 blades, two forceps and scissors
Galen (129–c.200 AD), Opera omnia, dissection of a pig. Engraving made in Venice, 1565
The Ayurvedic Man., c. 18th century
Page from a 1531 Latin translation by Peter Argellata of Al-Zahrawi's c. 1000 treatise on surgical and medical instruments
A dissection in Realdo Colombo's De Re Anatomica, 1559
Mondino de Luzzi's Anathomia, 1541
Vesalius with a dissected cadaver in his De humani corporis fabrica, 1543
Renaissance artists such as Antonio del Pollaiuolo studied anatomy to improve their artwork, as seen in this figurine of Hercules, 1470
Body snatching headstone of an 1823 grave in Stirling
A teenage school pupil dissecting an eye
Dissection of a human cheek from Gray's Anatomy (1918)
Dissection of a spiny dogfish
Dissection of human axilla
Human abdomen and thorax
Cow brain prepared for dissection
Dissection in a secondary school GCSE class
Technique of dissection and glycerination in Bovine articulation (tarsus)

Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.

One frame of a CT scan of the chest showing the heart and lungs.

Medical imaging

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Technique and process of imaging the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues .

Technique and process of imaging the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues .

One frame of a CT scan of the chest showing the heart and lungs.
Plain x-ray of the wrist and hand
One frame of an MRI scan of the head showing the eyes and brain.
Ultrasound image showing the liver, gallbladder and common bile duct.
3D tactile image (C) is composed from 2D pressure maps (B) recorded in the process of tissue phantom examination (A).
Basic principle of tomography: superposition free tomographic cross sections S1 and S2 compared with the (not tomographic) projected image P
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
In a derivative of a medical image created in the U.S., added annotations and explanations may be copyrightable, but the medical image itself remains public domain.

Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities.

Portrait by Jan van Calcar

Andreas Vesalius

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Portrait by Jan van Calcar
The skeleton of Jakob Karrer, articulated by Vesalius in 1543
The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, who was an important patron of Vesalius
A portrait of Vesalius from his De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543)
Vesalius's Fabrica contained many intricately detailed drawings of human dissections, often in allegorical poses.

Andreas Vesalius (Latinized from Andries van Wezel) (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem (On the fabric of the human body in seven books).

Histologic specimen being placed on the stage of an optical microscope.

Histology

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Histology,

Histology,

Histologic specimen being placed on the stage of an optical microscope.
Human lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin as seen under a microscope.
Histologic section of a plant stem (Alliaria petiolata).
Histologic section of a fossilized invertebrate. Ordovician bryozoan.
Items used for submitting specimens: (Biopsy) wrap, (biopsy) sponge, (tissue processing) cassette and (biopsy) bag.
Histologic sample being embedded in paraffin wax (tissue is held at the bottom of a metal mold, and more molten paraffin is poured over it to fill it).
Histologic sample being cut on a microtome.
Masson's trichrome staining on rat trachea.
Green algae under a Transmission electron microscope
Santiago Ramón y Cajal in his laboratory.

also known as microscopic anatomy or microanatomy, is the branch of biology which studies the microscopic anatomy of biological tissues.

Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

Physiology

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Scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system.

Scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system.

Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.

Gross anatomy

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Gross anatomy is the study of anatomy at the visible or macroscopic level.

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner

Magnetic resonance imaging

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Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner
A mobile MRI unit visiting Glebefields Health Centre, Tipton, England
Effects of TR and TE on MR signal
Examples of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MRI scans
Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen
MRI diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts
MR angiogram in congenital heart disease
Magnetic resonance angiography
Motion artifact (T1 coronal study of cervical vertebrae)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.