Anchor (climbing)

anchoranchorsanchoredanchoringbelay anchoranchor knotanchor pointanchor systemequalizationrunning belay
In rock climbing, an anchor can be any device or method for attaching a climber, a rope, or a load to the climbing surface - typically rock, ice, steep dirt, or a building - either permanently or temporarily.wikipedia
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Rock climbing

rock climberrock climbersrock-climbing
In rock climbing, an anchor can be any device or method for attaching a climber, a rope, or a load to the climbing surface - typically rock, ice, steep dirt, or a building - either permanently or temporarily.
Climbers will usually work in pairs and utilize a system of ropes and anchors designed to catch falls.

Climbing protection

protectionprotectbolts
Depending on the surface being climbed, there are many types of protection that can be used to construct an anchor, including natural protection such as boulders and trees, or artificial protection such as cams, nuts, bolts or pitons.
A lead climber places protection (temporary or permanent anchors) in the rock, snow, or ice establishing a climbing route.

Top rope climbing

top ropingtop ropetop-rope
A belay anchor is used as a sole attachment to the cliff face, to support a belay or top rope.
Top rope climbing (or top roping) is a style in climbing in which the climber is securely attached to a rope which then passes up, through an anchor system at the top of the climb, and down to a belayer at the foot of the climb.

Glossary of climbing terms

on-sightonsightexposure
Snow pickets can also be placed horizontally in snow as a deadman, which provides a secure anchor to abseil on. Ice screws can be hand-driven into solid ice and are the equivalent of cams or nuts when ice climbing.
Anchor

Snow protection

Snow pickets can also be placed horizontally in snow as a deadman, which provides a secure anchor to abseil on. Ice screws can be hand-driven into solid ice and are the equivalent of cams or nuts when ice climbing.
Snow protection (snow pro) is a type of natural or artificial protection used in mountaineering as an anchor.

Mountaineering

mountaineermountain climbingmountain climber
The snow picket is used as an anchor in mountaineering.
The leader will reach a point on the rock to build an anchor.

Lead climbing

leadlead climblead climber
A running belay anchor is used as a safeguard in the event of a fall while lead climbing.
Once the leader reaches a suitable spot for anchoring, or runs out of protection (hopefully the former), two things can occur:

Anchor Force Equation (proof)

anchor force equation
This equation is a special case representation of the more general anchor force equation, in which the load-sharing anchor is constructed from two symmetrically placed anchors.
Equalization is a mathematical analysis of static load-sharing (also called load-distributing) 2-point anchor systems.

Fall protection

falls
The intention of an anchor is case-specific but is usually for fall protection; primarily fall arrest and fall restraint.

Fall arrest

active systemsarrest a person in free fallfrom a fall
The intention of an anchor is case-specific but is usually for fall protection; primarily fall arrest and fall restraint.

Hoist (device)

hoisthoistshoisting
Climbing anchors are also used for hoisting, holding static loads, or redirecting (sometimes called deviating) a rope.

Spring-loaded camming device

camcamming devicescams
Depending on the surface being climbed, there are many types of protection that can be used to construct an anchor, including natural protection such as boulders and trees, or artificial protection such as cams, nuts, bolts or pitons.

Nut (climbing)

nutsnutchocks
Depending on the surface being climbed, there are many types of protection that can be used to construct an anchor, including natural protection such as boulders and trees, or artificial protection such as cams, nuts, bolts or pitons.

Bolt (climbing)

boltsboltbolted
Depending on the surface being climbed, there are many types of protection that can be used to construct an anchor, including natural protection such as boulders and trees, or artificial protection such as cams, nuts, bolts or pitons.

Piton

fixed anchorspinspitons
Depending on the surface being climbed, there are many types of protection that can be used to construct an anchor, including natural protection such as boulders and trees, or artificial protection such as cams, nuts, bolts or pitons.

Belaying

belaybelayerbelayed
A belay anchor is used as a sole attachment to the cliff face, to support a belay or top rope.

Simul climbing

running belay
A running belay anchor is used as a safeguard in the event of a fall while lead climbing.

Ice screw

Snow pickets can also be placed horizontally in snow as a deadman, which provides a secure anchor to abseil on. Ice screws can be hand-driven into solid ice and are the equivalent of cams or nuts when ice climbing.

Ice climbing

ice climberice climbersice-climbing
Snow pickets can also be placed horizontally in snow as a deadman, which provides a secure anchor to abseil on. Ice screws can be hand-driven into solid ice and are the equivalent of cams or nuts when ice climbing.

Abalakov thread

Abalakov thread climbing deviceV-ThreadV-threads
Ice can also be protected using an Abalakov thread or v-thread.

Quickdraw

quickdrawsquick draw
Because of the uncertain holding power of ice protection, it is sometimes attached to the rope using a load-absorbing sling or quickdraw, designed to reduce the load on protection by extending in case of a fall.

Munter hitch

Italian / Munter Hitchitalian hitchmunter mule hitch
A hanging belay device may be used, although it is common in this instance to just use an Italian hitch.

Fall factor

factor-two fall
Fall factor (if a fall occurs)

Best practice

best practicesbest practice exchangebest management practices
To ensure proper redundancy and effectiveness of a load-sharing anchor, some best practices are commonly observed.

Traditional climbing

Tradtraditionaltrad climbing
In trad climbing belay stations, load-sharing anchor are often constructed from more than two individual anchors, which are rarely co-planar.