Ancient Egypt

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles (Predynastic Period)
Early tomb painting from Nekhen, c. 3500 BC, Naqada, possibly Gerzeh, culture
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
Khafre enthroned
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
The Egyptian Empire c. 1450 BC
Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel
Statues of two pharaohs of Egypt's Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and several other Kushite kings. From left to right: Tantamani, Taharqa (rear), Senkamanisken, again Tantamani (rear), Aspelta, Anlamani, again Senkamanisken. Kerma Museum.
Assyrian siege of an Egyptian fortified city, a scene from the Assyrian conquest of Egypt, probably referring to the capture of Memphis in 667 BC. Sculpted in 645–635 BC, under Ashurbanipal. British Museum.
Portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the double crown of Egypt
The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
Painted limestone relief of a noble member of Ancient Egyptian society during the New Kingdom
Punishment in ancient Egypt
The Seated Scribe from Saqqara, Fifth dynasty of Egypt; scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes (Eighteenth Dynasty).
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, c. 1321 BC
The Rosetta Stone (c. 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the process of deciphering ancient Egyptian scripts.
Ostrakon: hunting a lion with spear and dog
Lower-class occupations
Egyptians celebrated feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art
The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.
A chariot
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo
Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC), written in hieratic, describes anatomy and medical treatments.
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut's Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition
Astronomical chart in Senemut's tomb, 18th dynasty
Model of a household porch and garden, c. 1981–1975 BC
The Temple of Dendur, completed by 10 BC, made of aeolian sandstone, temple proper: height: 6.4 m, width: 6.4 m; length: 12.5 m, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The well preserved Temple of Isis from Philae is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture
Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius
Egyptian tomb models as funerary goods. Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Kneeling portrait statue of Amenemhat holding a stele with an inscription; c. 1500 BC; limestone; Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Germany)
Fresco which depicts Nebamun hunting birds; 1350 BC; paint on plaster; 98 × 83 cm; British Museum (London)
Portrait head of pharaoh Hatshepsut or Thutmose III; 1480–1425 BC; most probably granite; height: 16.5 cm; Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Falcon box with wrapped contents; 332–30 BC; painted and gilded wood, linen, resin and feathers; 58.5 × 24.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frontispiece of Description de l'Égypte, published in 38 volumes between 1809 and 1829.
Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza

Civilization of ancient Northeast Africa, situated in the Egyptian Nile Valley in the country Egypt.

- Ancient Egypt
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.

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A Gerzeh culture vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.

History of ancient Egypt

A Gerzeh culture vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.
Mesopotamian king as Master of Animals on the Gebel el-Arak Knife, dated to the Naqada II period circa 3300-3200 BC, Abydos, Egypt. Louvre Museum, reference E 11517. This work of art both shows the influence of Mesopotamia on Egypt at an early date, and the state of Mesopotamian royal iconography during the Uruk period.
Stela of the Second Dynasty Pharaoh Nebra, displaying the hieroglyph for his Horus name within a serekh surmounted by Horus. On display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Greywacke statue of the pharaoh Menkaure and his queen consort, Khamerernebty II. Originally from his Giza temple, now on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Pottery model of a house used in a burial from the First Intermediate Period, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.
An Osiris statue of Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle Kingdom
Statuette of Merankhre Mentuhotep, a minor pharaoh of the Sixteenth Dynasty, reigning over the Theban region c. 1585 BC.
Golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun
Egypt and its world in 1300 BC.
Colossal depictions of Ramesses II at one of the Abu Simbel temples.
Portrait of "Black Pharaoh" Taharqa, Kerma Museum
25th Dynasty
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Pharao (3rd–2nd century BCE). Louvre Museum.

The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The pharaonic period, the period in which Egypt was ruled by a pharaoh, is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule in 332 BC.

Verso of Narmer Palette

Narmer

Narmer (, meaning "painful catfish," "stinging catfish," "harsh catfish," or "fierce catfish;" (r.

Narmer (, meaning "painful catfish," "stinging catfish," "harsh catfish," or "fierce catfish;" (r.

Verso of Narmer Palette
Limestone head of a king (its provenance is unknown and has no inscriptions). Thought by Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London, to be Narmer, on the basis of the similarity (according to Petrie) to the head of Narmer on the Narmer Palette. This has not been generally accepted. According to Trope, Quirke & Lacovara, the suggestion that it is Narmer is "unlikely". Alternatively, they suggest the Fourth Dynasty king Khufu. Stevenson also identifies it as Khufu. Charron identifies it as a king of the Thinite Period (the first two dynasties), but does not believe it can be assigned to any particular king. Wilkinson describes it as "probably Second Dynasty".
Serekhs bearing the rebus symbols n'r (catfish) and mr (chisel) inside, being the phonetic representation of Narmer's name.
Reconstruction of the Narmer-Menes Seal impression from Abydos
Naqada Label reconstruction
Necropolis seal impression of Qa'a
Chambers B17 and B18 in the Umm el-Qa'ab, which constitute the tomb of Narmer.
Narmer serekh on pottery sherd from Nahal Tillah (Canaan) showing stylized catfish and absence of chisel, Courtesy Thomas E. Levy, Levantine and Cyber-Archaeology Laboratory, UC San Diego
A mud jar sealing indicating that the contents came from the estate of Narmer. Originally from Tarkhan, now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
Pottery sherd inscribed with the serekh and name of Narmer, on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Narmer wearing the Deshret crown of Lower Egypt on the Narmer Palette
Incised inscription on a vessel found at Tarkhan (tomb 414), naming Narmer; Petrie Museum UC 16083.
Narmer serekh in its full formal format on an alabaster vase from Abydos, Petrie, 1901, RT II, p. 44, fig. 52.359(detail)
Alabaster statue of a baboon divinity with the name of Narmer inscribed on its base, on display at the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin
Drawing of Narmer serekh on pottery vessel with stylized catfish and without chisel or falcon, copyright Kafr Hassan Dawood Mission
Arrowheads from Narmer's tomb, Petrie 1905, Royal Tombs II, pl. IV.14. According to Dreyer, these arrowheads are probably from the tomb of Djer, where similar arrowheads were found{{sfn|Petrie|1901|pp= pl.VI.}}

c. 3273 – 2987 BC)) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period.

Map of the world according to Herodotus

Ancient Libya

The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη: Libyē, which came from Berber: Libu) referred to the African continent.

The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη: Libyē, which came from Berber: Libu) referred to the African continent.

Map of the world according to Herodotus
Archaeological Site of Sabratha, Libya

Berbers occupied the area for thousands of years before the recording of history in ancient Egypt.

The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.

Cleopatra

The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.
Hellenistic Kingdoms that emerged after the death of Alexander the Great
Hellenistic portrait of Ptolemy XII Auletes, the father of Cleopatra, located in the Louvre, Paris
Most likely a posthumously painted portrait of Cleopatra with red hair and her distinct facial features, wearing a royal diadem and pearl-studded hairpins, from Roman Herculaneum, Italy, 1st century AD
The Roman Republic (green) and Ptolemaic Egypt (yellow) in 40 BC
A Roman portrait of Pompey made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original from 70 to 60 BC, and located in the Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
The Tusculum portrait, a contemporary Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar located in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
Cleopatra and Caesar (1866), a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Egyptian portrait of a Ptolemaic queen, possibly Cleopatra, c. 51–30 BC, located in the Brooklyn Museum
Cleopatra's Gate in Tarsos (now Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey), the site where she met Mark Antony in 41 BC
A Roman marble bust of the consul and triumvir Mark Antony, late 1st century AD, Vatican Museums
the 1885 painting
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 43 BC
A denarius minted by Antony in 34 BC with his portrait on the obverse, which bears the inscription reading "ANTONIVS ARMENIA DEVICTA", alluding to his Armenian campaign. The reverse features Cleopatra, with the inscription "CLEOPATR[AE] REGINAE REGVM FILIORVM REGVM". The mention of her children on the reverse refers to the Donations of Alexandria.
A papyrus document dated February 33 BC granting tax exemptions to a person in Egypt and containing the signature of Cleopatra written by an official, but with "γινέσθωι" ( "make it happen" or "so be it") added in Greek, likely by the queen's own hand
A reconstructed statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated c. 30 BC
A Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II in Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra, wearing her royal diadem and consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
The Death of Cleopatra (1658), by Guido Cagnacci
The Death of Cleopatra (1796–1797), by Jean-Baptiste Regnault
Cleopatra on a coin of 40 drachms from 51 to 30 BC, minted at Alexandria; on the obverse is a portrait of Cleopatra wearing a diadem, and on the reverse an inscription reading "ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ" with an eagle standing on a thunderbolt.
Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners (1887), by Alexandre Cabanel
A restructured marble Roman statue of Cleopatra wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, found along the Via Cassia near the, Rome, and now located in the Museo Pio-Clementino
a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra
the Berlin portrait
Cleopatra and Mark Antony on the obverse and reverse, respectively, of a silver tetradrachm struck at the Antioch mint in 36 BC, with Greek legends: BACIΛΙCCA KΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑ ΘΕΑ ΝΕΩΤΕΡΑ, ANTΩNIOC AYTOKPATΩP TPITON TPIΩN ANΔPΩN.
Possible sculpted head of Cleopatra VII wearing an Egyptian-style vulture headdress, discovered in Rome, either Roman or Hellenistic Egyptian art, Parian marble, 1st century BC, from the Capitoline Museums{{sfnp|Fletcher|2008|pp=199–200}}{{sfnp|Ashton|2001a|p=217}}
this painting at Pompeii
woman in the painting
Another painting from Pompeii
depicted Cleopatra committing suicide
the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background
A possible depiction of Mark Antony on the Portland Vase being lured by Cleopatra, straddling a serpent, while Anton, Antony's alleged ancestor, looks on and Eros flies above
Cleopatra and her son Caesarion at the Temple of Dendera
The Banquet of Cleopatra (1744), by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, now in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
depiction of her and Antony
The Triumph of Cleopatra (1821), by William Etty, now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, England
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums{{sfnp|Raia|Sebesta|2017}}{{sfnp|Grout|2017b|}}{{sfnp|Roller|2010|pp=174–175}}
Profile view of the Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum{{sfnp|Raia|Sebesta|2017}}{{sfnp|Grout|2017b|}}{{sfnp|Roller|2010|pp=174–175}}
Profile view of the Berlin Cleopatra
A granite Egyptian bust of Cleopatra from the Royal Ontario Museum, mid-1st century BC
A marble statue of Cleopatra with her cartouche inscribed on the upper right arm and wearing a diadem with a triple uraeus, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art{{sfnp|Ashton|2001b|p=165}}

Cleopatra VII Philopator (69 BC10 August 30 BC) was Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.

Egypt

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic

Alexander the Great

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Alexander III riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Map of The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC, birthplace of Alexander
Roman medallion depicting Olympias, Alexander's mother
Archaeological Site of Pella, Greece, Alexander's birthplace
Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father
Battle plan from the Battle of Chaeronea
Pausanius assassinates Philip II, Alexander's father, during his procession into the theatre
The emblema of the Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
The Macedonian phalanx at the "Battle of the Carts" against the Thracians in 335 BC
Map of Alexander's empire and his route
Gérard Audran after Charles LeBrun, 'Alexander Entering Babylon,' original print first published 1675, engraving, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC.
Alexander Cuts the Gordian Knot (1767) by Jean-Simon Berthélemy
Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written from right to left), c. 332 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.
Site of the Persian Gate in modern-day Iran; the road was built in the 1990s.
Administrative document from Bactria dated to the seventh year of Alexander's reign (324 BC), bearing the first known use of the "Alexandros" form of his name, Khalili Collection of Aramaic Documents
The Killing of Cleitus, by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great found in Byblos (ca 330-300 bc.) (BnF 1998–859; 17,33g; Byblos, Price 3426b)
The Phalanx Attacking the Centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent
Porus surrenders to Alexander
Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai of the Indian subcontinent, in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours
Alexander (left) and Hephaestion (right): Both were connected by a tight friendship
Alexander at the Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes (1796)
A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum, London)
19th-century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession, based on the description by Diodorus Siculus
Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus
Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 301 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon (orange), and Kingdom of Macedon (green). Also shown are the Roman Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and the Kingdom of Epirus (red).
A coin of Alexander the Great struck by Balakros or his successor Menes, both former somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Alexander, when they held the position of satrap of Cilicia in the lifetime of Alexander, circa 333-327 BC. The obverse shows Heracles, ancestor of the Macedonian royal line and the reverse shows a seated Zeus Aëtophoros.
The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC
The Battle of Issus, 333 BC
Alexander Cameo by Pyrgoteles
Alexander portrayal by Lysippos
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th century BC mosaic, Pella Museum
A Roman copy of an original 3rd century BC Greek bust depicting Alexander the Great, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC; the couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
The Hellenistic world view: world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), using information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors
Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Dedication of Alexander the Great to Athena Polias at Priene, now housed in the British Museum
Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.
The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st to 2nd century AD, Gandhara, northern Pakistan. Tokyo National Museum.
This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the influence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Alexander in a 14th-century Armenian manuscript
Alexander in a 14th-century Byzantine manuscript
Alexander conquering the air. Jean Wauquelin, Les faits et conquêtes d'Alexandre le Grand, 1448–1449
Folio from the Shahnameh showing Alexander praying at the Kaaba, mid-16th century
Detail of a 16th-century Islamic painting depicting Alexander being lowered in a glass submersible

At the age of 20, he succeeded his father, Philip II of Macedon, to the throne upon the latter's assassination at the wedding of Cleopatra of Macedon in October 336 BC. Beginning shortly after his father's death, he spent most of his ruling years conducting a lengthy military campaign throughout Western Asia and Egypt, Central Asia, and South Asia.

The cartouche of Menes on the Abydos King List

Menes

Menes (fl.

Menes (fl.

The cartouche of Menes on the Abydos King List
Two Horus names of Hor-Aha (left) and a name of Menes (right) in hieroglyphs.
Labels from the tomb of Menes

c. 3200–3000 BC; ;, probably pronounced *; ) was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt and as the founder of the First Dynasty.

Paintings with symbols on Naqada II pottery (3500–3200 BC)

Egyptian hieroglyphs

Paintings with symbols on Naqada II pottery (3500–3200 BC)
Designs on some of the labels or tokens from Abydos, carbon-dated to circa 3400–3200 BC and among the earliest form of writing in Egypt. They are similar to [[:File:Limestone pendant plaque, maybe Uruk, c. 3000 BC.jpg|contemporary tags]] from Uruk, Mesopotamia.
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, circa 1321 BC
Ibn Wahshiyya's attempt at a translation of a hieroglyphic text
The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum
Illustration from Tabula Aegyptiaca hieroglyphicis exornata published in Acta Eruditorum, 1714
Hieroglyphs typical of the Graeco-Roman period
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Hieroglyphs at Amada, at temple founded by Tuthmosis III
Comparative evolution from pictograms to abstract shapes, in cuneiform, Egyptian and Chinese characters
Extract from the Tale of the Two Brothers.
Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name Ramesses II, from the Luxor Temple, New Kingdom
Name of Alexander the Great in hieroglyphs, c. 332 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum
Labels with early inscriptions from the tomb of Menes (3200–3000 BC)
Ivory plaque of Menes (3200-3000 BC)
Ivory plaque of Menes (drawing)
The oldest known full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs. Seal impression of Seth-Peribsen (Second Dynasty, c. 28-27th century BC)

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt, used for writing the Egyptian language.

Pschent, the double crown of Egypt

Upper and Lower Egypt

The final stage of prehistoric Egypt and directly preceded the unification of the realm.

The final stage of prehistoric Egypt and directly preceded the unification of the realm.

Pschent, the double crown of Egypt
Hapi tying the papyrus and reed plants in the sema tawy symbol for the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
The river god Hapi uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. Colossi of Memnon. Reign of Amenhotep III.
Temple scene at Luxor, Thebes
Alabaster Jar depicting the sema tawy symbol with Hapy. From the tomb of Tutankhamun.
Ramesses III at the temple of Khonsu.
Sema tawy (without deities) on the side of the throne of Khafre

Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions, namely Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

The air god Shu, assisted by other gods, holds up Nut, the sky, as Geb, the earth, lies beneath.

Ancient Egyptian religion

The air god Shu, assisted by other gods, holds up Nut, the sky, as Geb, the earth, lies beneath.
Statue of Khafre, an Old Kingdom pharaoh, embraced by Horus
Ma'at wearing the feather of truth
Ra (at center) travels through the underworld in his barque, accompanied by other gods
Section of the Book of the Dead for the scribe Hunefer, depicting the Weighing of the Heart.
First pylon and colonnade of the Temple of Isis at Philae
The Apis bull
Amulet in the shape of the Eye of Horus, a common magical symbol
The Opening of the Mouth ceremony being performed before the tomb
Narmer, a Predynastic ruler, accompanied by men carrying the standards of various local gods
The pyramid complex of Djedkare Isesi
Akhenaten and his family worshipping the Aten
Serapis
Altar to Thoth of a Kemetic follower

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian culture.