Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopherGreekphilosophyancient Greek philosophersancient Greekphilosopherancient Greek philosopherclassical Greek philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Greece and most Greek-inhabited lands were part of the Roman Empire.wikipedia
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Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Philosophy was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way.
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: ancient (Greco-Roman), medieval philosophy (Christian European), and modern philosophy.

Pre-Socratic philosophy

pre-Socraticpre-Socraticspre-Socratic philosophers
The classicist Martin Litchfield West states, "contact with oriental cosmology and theology helped to liberate the early Greek philosophers' imagination; it certainly gave them many suggestive ideas. But they taught themselves to reason. Philosophy as we understand it is a Greek creation". Subsequent philosophic tradition was so influenced by Socrates as presented by Plato that it is conventional to refer to philosophy developed prior to Socrates as pre-Socratic philosophy.
Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy before Socrates and schools contemporary to Socrates that were not influenced by him.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, mathematics, political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics.
Socrates (469–399 BC) was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of humankind.

Thales of Miletus

ThalesThalisThales Avionics
Thales of Miletus, regarded by Aristotle as the first philosopher, held that all things arise from a single material substance, water.
Many, most notably Aristotle, regarded him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition, and he is otherwise historically recognized as the first individual in Western civilization known to have entertained and engaged in scientific philosophy.

Anaximander

Anaximander of MiletusAnaximandrosἈναξίμανδρος
Thales inspired the Milesian school of philosophy and was followed by Anaximander, who argued that the substratum or arche could not be water or any of the classical elements but was instead something "unlimited" or "indefinite" (in Greek, the apeiron).
610 BC), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia (in modern-day Turkey).

Ontology

ontologicalontologicallyontologies
It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, mathematics, political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics.
In the Greek philosophical tradition, Parmenides ( late sixth or early fifth century BCE) was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence.

Epicurus

EpicureanEpicurean paradoxEpicurean doctrine
He has been claimed as an influence on Eleatic philosophy, although that is disputed, and a precursor to Epicurus, a representative of a total break between science and religion.
Epicurus (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoras of SamosPythagoreans
Pythagoras lived at roughly the same time that Xenophanes did and, in contrast to the latter, the school that he founded sought to reconcile religious belief and reason.
570) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism.

Arche

archēarchaiarché
Thales inspired the Milesian school of philosophy and was followed by Anaximander, who argued that the substratum or arche could not be water or any of the classical elements but was instead something "unlimited" or "indefinite" (in Greek, the apeiron). Contrary to the Milesian school, which posits one stable element as the arche, Heraclitus taught that panta rhei ("everything flows"), the closest element to this eternal flux being fire.
In ancient Greek philosophy, Aristotle foregrounded the meaning of arche as the element or principle of a thing, which although undemonstrable and intangible in itself, provides the conditions of the possibility of that thing.

Apeiron

Apeiron (cosmology)unlimitedÁpeiron
Thales inspired the Milesian school of philosophy and was followed by Anaximander, who argued that the substratum or arche could not be water or any of the classical elements but was instead something "unlimited" or "indefinite" (in Greek, the apeiron).
The apeiron is central to the cosmological theory created by Anaximander, a 6th-century BC pre-Socratic Greek philosopher whose work is mostly lost.

Physis

naturephysiolatrynatures
Despite their varied answers, the Milesian school was searching for a natural substance that would remain unchanged despite appearing in different forms, and thus represents one of the first scientific attempts to answer the question that would lead to the development of modern atomic theory; "the Milesians," says Burnet, "asked for the φύσις of all things."
The term is central to Greek philosophy, and as a consequence to Western philosophy as a whole.

Anaximenes of Miletus

Anaximenes Anaximenes
This initial state is ageless and imperishable, and everything returns to it according to necessity Anaximenes in turn held that the arche was air, although John Burnet argues that by this he meant that it was a transparent mist, the aether.
Anaximenes' ideas and philosophies are only known today because of comments made by Aristotle and other writers on the history of Greek philosophy.

Heraclitus

Heraclitus of EphesusHeracliteanpanta rhei
Contrary to the Milesian school, which posits one stable element as the arche, Heraclitus taught that panta rhei ("everything flows"), the closest element to this eternal flux being fire.
535) was a pre-Socratic Ionian Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and then part of the Persian Empire.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
The convention of terming those philosophers who were active prior to the death of Socrates as the pre-Socratics gained currency with the 1903 publication of Hermann Diels' Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, although the term did not originate with him.
Thales, an astronomer and mathematician, was considered by Aristotle to be the first philosopher of the Greek tradition.

Metempsychosis

transmigration of soulsmigration of the soulReincarnation
Pythagoreanism also incorporated ascetic ideals, emphasizing purgation, metempsychosis, and consequently a respect for all animal life; much was made of the correspondence between mathematics and the cosmos in a musical harmony.
Generally, the term is derived from the context of ancient Greek philosophy, and has been recontextualised by modern philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Kurt Gödel; otherwise, the term "transmigration" is more appropriate.

Anaxagoras

Anaxagoras of ClazomenaeAnaxagorean
The power of Parmenides' logic was such that some subsequent philosophers abandoned the monism of the Milesians, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, and Parmenides, where one thing was the arche, and adopted pluralism, such as Empedocles and Anaxagoras.
510 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.

Early Islamic philosophy

philosopherphilosophyearly Muslim philosophy
Clear, unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers to Early Islamic philosophy, Medieval Scholasticism, the European Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment.
Islamic law placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam, but this approach was later displaced by ideas from Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy with the rise of the Mu'tazili philosophers, who highly valued Aristotle's Organon.

Prodicus

Prodicus of Ceos
Prodicus, Gorgias, Hippias, and Thrasymachus appear in various dialogues, sometimes explicitly teaching that while nature provides no ethical guidance, the guidance that the laws provide is worthless, or that nature favors those who act against the laws.
Prodicus of Ceos (, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Prodicus, Gorgias, Hippias, and Thrasymachus appear in various dialogues, sometimes explicitly teaching that while nature provides no ethical guidance, the guidance that the laws provide is worthless, or that nature favors those who act against the laws. Subsequent philosophic tradition was so influenced by Socrates as presented by Plato that it is conventional to refer to philosophy developed prior to Socrates as pre-Socratic philosophy.
He is widely considered the pivotal figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy, along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle.

Cicero

Marcus Tullius CiceroCiceronianTully
While philosophy was an established pursuit prior to Socrates, Cicero credits him as "the first who brought philosophy down from the heavens, placed it in cities, introduced it into families, and obliged it to examine into life and morals, and good and evil."
Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as evidentia, humanitas, qualitas, quantitas, and essentia), distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher.

Aether (classical element)

aetheretherquintessence
This initial state is ageless and imperishable, and everything returns to it according to necessity Anaximenes in turn held that the arche was air, although John Burnet argues that by this he meant that it was a transparent mist, the aether.
However, in his Book On the Heavens he introduced a new "first" element to the system of the classical elements of Ionian philosophy.

Antisthenes

Antisthenes founded the school that would come to be known as Cynicism and accused Plato of distorting Socrates' teachings.
Antisthenes (Ἀντισθένης; c. 445 – c. 365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.

Cynicism (philosophy)

CynicCynicsCynicism
Antisthenes founded the school that would come to be known as Cynicism and accused Plato of distorting Socrates' teachings.
Cynicism is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (, Cynici).

Socratic method

SocraticMaieuticselenchus
The fact that many conversations involving Socrates (as recounted by Plato and Xenophon) end without having reached a firm conclusion, or aporetically, has stimulated debate over the meaning of the Socratic method.
It is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
The term is considered useful because what came to be known as the "Athenian school" (composed of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle) signaled the rise of a new approach to philosophy; Friedrich Nietzsche's thesis that this shift began with Plato rather than with Socrates (hence his nomenclature of "pre-Platonic philosophy") has not prevented the predominance of the "pre-Socratic" distinction.
A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy.