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Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established.
The Roman Republic (Rēs pūblica Rōmāna, ; Repubblica romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

Roman Kingdom

Regal periodRoman monarchymonarchy
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the earliest period of Roman history, when the city and its territory were ruled by kings.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum, ; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. ) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two separate imperial courts as an administrative expediency.

Western Europe

WesternWestWestern European
Through conquest and assimilation, it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe.
Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin West and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking Invasions, the East-West schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two World Wars, the Cold War, the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the expansion of the European Union.

Italic peoples

ItalicRomanceLatin
The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed.
The Italic peoples descended from Indo-Europeans who migrated into Italy in the 2nd millennium BC. Latins achieved a dominant position among these tribes, establishing ancient Roman civilization.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world.

Roman technology

technologyancient Roman technologyAqueduct technology
It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.
Roman technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, processes, and engineering practices which supported Roman civilization and made possible the expansion of the economy and military of ancient Rome (753 BC – 476 AD).

Greco-Roman world

Greco-RomanGraeco-RomanGreco-Roman culture
It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman ( or ); spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Ancient history

antiquityancientancient world
The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.
This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece.

Rome

RomanRomaRome, Italy
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed.
Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.

Founding of Rome

foundation of Romefoundingfounded
According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, and who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa.
The tale of the Founding of Rome is recounted in traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves as the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.

Mars (mythology)

MarsRoman god of wargod of war
Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs, ) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

Alba Longa

AlbanAlbaAlbans
According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, and who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa.
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin city in Central Italy, 12 mi southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills.

Virgil

VergilPublius Vergilius MaroVirgil’s
The Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid, where the Trojan prince Aeneas is destined by the gods to found a new Troy.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC ), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

Cultural assimilation

assimilationassimilatedassimilate
Through conquest and assimilation, it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe.
An example is the Latin language and Roman culture being gradually adopted by most of the people subjugated by Ancient Rome.

Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, writing at first in Greek, but eventually chronicling their history in a freshly non-Greek language.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France.
The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology.

Romulus and Remus

RomulusRemusfounders of Rome
According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, and who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa.
Since ancient times, the image of the twins being suckled by a she-wolf has been a symbol of the city of Rome and the Roman people.

Aeneid

ÆneidThe AeneidEneydos
The Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid, where the Trojan prince Aeneas is destined by the gods to found a new Troy.
The Aeneid (Aeneis ) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

Kings of Alba Longa

Alban kingAlban kingsking
According to the poem, the Alban kings were descended from Aeneas, and thus Romulus, the founder of Rome, was his descendant.
In the mythic tradition of ancient Rome, they fill the 400-year gap between the settlement of Aeneas in Italy and the founding of the city of Rome by Romulus.

Overthrow of the Roman monarchy

overthrowrevolutionestablishment
According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established.
The overthrow of the Roman monarchy, a political revolution in ancient Rome, took place around 509 BC and resulted in the expulsion of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, and the establishment of the Roman Republic.

Livy

Titus LiviusLiviusLiv.
According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

Roman Senate

senatorSenateRoman Senator
The consuls had to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power.
The Roman Senate (Senātus Rōmānus) was a political institution in ancient Rome.