Andean civilizations

Ancient PeruAndean civilizationIncaAndeanAndesIncanAncient civilizations of PeruInca peopleAndean culturesIncan civilization
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that mainly developed in the coastal deserts of Peru.wikipedia
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Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that mainly developed in the coastal deserts of Peru.
Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures.

Quipu

quipuskhipukhipus
Instead, their societies used the quipu, a system of knotted and colored strings, to convey information.
The Inca people used them for collecting data and keeping records, monitoring tax obligations, properly collecting census records, calendrical information, and for military organization.

Inca Empire

IncaIncasIncan
Less than a century prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquerors, the Incas, already established in Peru, united most of the Andean cultures into one single state which encompasses all of what is usually called Andean civilization.
The Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations.

Axe-monies

Copper axe-monies (also called "naipes") and Spondylus shells functioned as mediums of exchange in some areas, especially coastal Ecuador, but most of the Andes area had economies organized on reciprocity and redistribution rather than money and markets.
Axe-monies refer to bronze artifacts found in both western Mesoamerica and the northern Andes.

Coca

coca leafcoca leavescoca plant
Many of these plants are no longer cultivated, or are minor crops, but important plants which were domesticated in or near the Andes include potatoes, quinoa, tomatoes, chile peppers, cotton, coca, tobacco, pineapples, peanuts, and several varieties of beans.
It also plays a role in many traditional Andean cultures as well as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (see Traditional uses).

Vertical archipelago

verticality
At a macro level, societies and states did the same with the vertical archipelago, establishing colonies at different elevations and locations to increase the possibilities of agricultural success.
Aside from certain cultures, particularly in the arid northwest coast of Peru and northern Andes, pre-colonial Andean civilizations did not have strong traditions of market-based trade.

Cradle of civilization

first civilizationcradles of civilizationcradle of civilisation
It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas and one of the Cradles of civilization where civilization separately originated in the ancient world.

Caral

Sacred City of Caral-SupeSacred City of CaralCaral Supe
The alternative name, Caral-Supe, is derived from the Sacred City of Caral in the Supe Valley, a large and well-studied Norte Chico site.
It is believed that Caral may answer questions about the origins of the Andean civilisations and the development of the first cities.

Quinoa

Chenopodium quinoaC. quinoaInternational Year of Quinoa
Many of these plants are no longer cultivated, or are minor crops, but important plants which were domesticated in or near the Andes include potatoes, quinoa, tomatoes, chile peppers, cotton, coca, tobacco, pineapples, peanuts, and several varieties of beans.
It has been an important staple in the Andean cultures, where the plant is indigenous, but relatively obscure to the rest of the world.

Chavín culture

ChavínChavinChavin culture
The Chavín culture is thought to have been primarily a religious movement.
Ritualistic activity for the Chavin isn't necessarily original; it has deep roots connected to activities from other Andean societies and cultures.

Chibcha language

ChibchaMuysccubunlanguage
They were closely related to the Muisca people of the Andes, who spoke a Chibcha language.
In prehistorical times, in the Andean civilizations called preceramic, the population of northwestern South America happened through the Darien Gap between the isthmus of Panama and Colombia.

Quechua people

QuechuaQuechuasQuechuan
Quechua was not only spoken by the Incas, but also by their long-term enemies of the Inca Empire, like the Huanca (Wanka is a Quechua dialect spoken today in the Huancayo area) and the Chanka (the Chanca dialect of Ayacucho) of Peru, and the Kañari (Cañari) in Ecuador.

Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru

Cultural periods of PeruMiddle HorizonPre-Inca cultures
The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru from about 100 CE to 800 CE, during the Regional Development Epoch.

Indigenous peoples of South America

indigenousIndigenous peoples in South AmericaIndians
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that mainly developed in the coastal deserts of Peru.

Andes

AndeanAndes MountainsAndean region
They were closely related to the Muisca people of the Andes, who spoke a Chibcha language. They stretched from the Andes of Venezuela southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile.

Venezuela

VenezuelanBolivarian Republic of VenezuelaVEN
They stretched from the Andes of Venezuela southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
They stretched from the Andes of Venezuela southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
They stretched from the Andes of Venezuela southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile.

Civilization

civilisationcivilizationsancient civilization
Archaeologists believe that Andean civilizations first developed on the narrow coastal plain of the Pacific Ocean.

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
Archaeologists believe that Andean civilizations first developed on the narrow coastal plain of the Pacific Ocean.

Spanish Empire

SpanishSpainSpanish colonies
Less than a century prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquerors, the Incas, already established in Peru, united most of the Andean cultures into one single state which encompasses all of what is usually called Andean civilization.

Timoto–Cuica people

Timoto-cuicasTimoto-Cuica peopleCuica
The Muisca of Colombia and the Timoto Cuica of Venezuela remained outside the Inca orbit.

Old World

OldAfro-Eurasianancient
Andean civilization lacked several characteristics distinguishing it from the pristine civilizations in the Old World and from the Mesoamerican cultures.

Wari Empire

WariTiwanaku-Wari Empire
The use of the quipu dates back at least to the Wari Empire (600–1000 CE) and possibly to the much earlier civilization of Norte Chico of the third millennium BCE.

Llama

llamasLama glamacamelids
People on land traveled only by foot and the transport of goods was only by humans or llama, pack animals which could carry loads of up to one-fourth of their weight, a maximum of 45 kg.