Andrea Palladio

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza
One of the first works by Palladio, Villa Godi (begun 1537)
Hall of the Muses of the Villa Godi (1537–1542)
Villa Piovene (1539)
Villa Pisani, Bagnolo (1542)
Palazzo Thiene (1542–1558), (begun by Giulio Romano, revised and completed by Palladio)
Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza
Ground floor and entrance stairway of the Basilica Palladiana
Upper level loggia of the Basilica Palladiana
Palazzo Chiericati (1550) in Vicenza
Palazzo del Capitaniato (1565–1572)
The front page of I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1642 edition)
Villa Cornaro (begun 1553) combined rustic living and an imposing space for formal entertaining
The Hall of the Four Columns
Plan of the Villa Cornaro
The Villa Barbaro in Maser (begun 1557)
The Nymphaeum of the Villa Barbaro
Detail of the Hall of Olympus, with frescoes by Paolo Veronese
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (begun 1566)
Palladio's plan of the Villa in I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570
North facade of Villa Foscari, facing the Brenta Canal
Interior decoration of grotesques on salon ceiling of Villa Foscari
South facade of Villa Foscari, with the large windows that illuminate the main salon
Nave of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1565)
Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Interior of Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Plan by Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi
Facade of the Tempietto Barbaro
Section of the Tempietto Barbaro, drawn by Scamozzi (1783)
Stage with scenery designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi, who completed the theatre after the death of Palladio
Stage and seating of his last work, the Teatro Olimpico (1584)
House of the Director of the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1775)
La Rotonde customs barrier, Parc Monceau, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Palladian garden structure at Steinhöfel by David Gilly (1798)
The Queen's House, Greenwich by Inigo Jones (1616–1635)
Chiswick House by Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and William Kent (completed 1729)
Wilton House south front by Inigo Jones (1650)
Palladio Bridge at Wilton House (1736–37)
Stourhead House by Colen Campbell (1721–24), inspired by Villa Capra
Harvard Hall at Harvard University by Thomas Dawes (1766)
Monticello, residence of Thomas Jefferson (1772)
Winning design for the first United States Capitol by Thomas Thornton (1793)
Clarity and harmony. Villa Badoer (1556–1563), an early use by Palladio of the elements of a Roman temple
The Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, (begun 1546) with arched Palladian window and round oculi to the loggia.
A variation of the Palladian or Venetian window, with round oculi, at Villa Pojana (1548–49)
Late Palladio style, Mannerist decoration on the facade of the Palazzo del Capitanio (1565–1572)
Palazzo Strozzi courtyard
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" outside Vicenza
San Francesco della Vigna in Venice
Villa Porto
Villa Valmarana
Villa Emo
Villa Saraceno
Villa Cornaro
Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, Vicenza

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

- Andrea Palladio

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I quattro libri dell'architettura

Front page of I quattro libri dell'architettura
Villa Pisani (Bagnolo) in I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura

I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) is a treatise on architecture by the architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580), written in Italian.

Palladian villas of the Veneto

Villa Capra "La Rotonda" in Vicenza. One of Palladio's most influential designs
Villa Godi in Lugo Vicentino. An early work notable for lack of external decoration
Villa Pisani, Montagnana
The frescoes in the Villa Caldogno main hall depict the different moments of the life in villa at Palladio's age
Villa Pisani in Bagnolo in the I quattro libri dell'architettura by Palladio (book II)

The Palladian villas of the Veneto are villas designed by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, all of whose buildings were erected in the Veneto, the mainland region of north-eastern Italy then under the political control of the Venetian Republic.

City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Architect Andrea Palladio
Plaque for Vicenza in the UNESCO World Heritage List

City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto is a World Heritage Site in Italy, which protects buildings by the architect Andrea Palladio.

Vicenza

City in northeastern Italy.

Basilica Palladiana
Piazza dei Signori
Basilica Palladiana with clock tower
A night view of the Basilica Palladiana
The three-dimensional stage of the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, designed by Palladio and built by Vincenzo Scamozzi
Porta Castello Tower
Plaque for Vicenza in the UNESCO World Heritage List
A plate of Baccalà alla vicentina, a typical dish of the city

The 16th century was the time of Andrea Palladio, who left many outstanding examples of his art with palaces and villas in the city's territory, which before Palladio's passage, was arguably the most downtrodden and esthetically lacking city of the Veneto.

Portico

Porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.

The portico of the Croome Court in Croome D'Abitot (England)
Temple diagram with location of the pronaos highlighted
Temple of Portunus in Rome, with its tetrastyle portico of four Ionic columns
The hexastyle Temple of Concord at Agrigentum (c. 430 BCE)
The western side of the octastyle Parthenon in Athens
Ancient Egyptian portico of the Mastaba of Seshemnefer IV (Giza pyramid complex, Egypt)
Minoan portico of the Knossos Palace (Crete, Greece)
Ancient Greek portico with Ionic columns of the Temple of Athena Nike (Athens, Greece)
The Portico of San Luca in Bologna, Italy, which is possibly the world's longest.<ref>{{cite news|last=Caird|first=Joe|title=Bologna city guide: top five sights|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/citybreaks/4223609/Bologna-city-guide-top-five-sights.html |archive-url=https://ghostarchive.org/archive/20220112/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/citybreaks/4223609/Bologna-city-guide-top-five-sights.html |archive-date=2022-01-12 |url-access=subscription |url-status=live|access-date=1 June 2013|newspaper=The Daily Telegraph|date=16 January 2009}}{{cbignore}}</ref>
Etruscan portico of a temple model, constructed between 1889 and 1890 on the basis of the ruins found in Alatri, now in National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia (Rome)
Ancient Roman portico of the Maison Carrée (Nîmes, France)
Islamic portico of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Kairouan, Tunisia)
Indian portico of the Sanchi Temple 17 (Sanchi, India)
Chinese portico of the Forbidden City (Beijing, China)
Romanesque portico of the Church of San Miguel (Sotosalbos, Spain)
Gothic portico of the Chartres Cathedral (Chartres, France)
Brâncovenesc portico of the Stavropoleos Church (Bucharest, Romania)
Renaissance portico of the Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (Vicenza, Veneto, Italy)
Baroque portico of the Church of the Val-de-Grâce (Paris)
Louis XVI portico of the Théâtre de la reine, part of the Petit Trianon (France)
Neoclassical portico of the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur (Paris)
Romanian Revival portico of the Ștefan Lilovici House (Bucharest)

Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings.

Monticello

The primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, who began designing Monticello after inheriting land from his father at age 26.

Monticello and its reflection
Some of the gardens on the property
Under the dome
The logo at Monticello's official website, hosted by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation
Monticello depicted on the reverse of the 1953 $2 bill. Note the two "Levy lions" on either side of the entrance. The lions, placed there by Jefferson Levy, were removed in 1923 when the Thomas Jefferson Foundation purchased the house.
In a time before refrigeration, Jefferson had the pond stocked with fish, to be available on demand.
Jefferson's vegetable garden
Plaque commemorating Monticello Graveyard, owned and operated separately by the Monticello Association
Monticello Graveyard
Jefferson's gravestone, with an epitaph written by him, does not mention that he was President of the United States.
On April 13, 1956, the U.S. Post Office issued a postage stamp honoring Monticello.
Monticello as portrayed on the reverse of the Jefferson nickel
Monticello is depicted on the 1994 commemorative Thomas Jefferson 250th Anniversary silver dollar
West Front of Monticello
Vegetable Garden - 180 degrees
The Visitors' Center
Monticello facade and its reproduction on a nickel
Monticello, the day after a snowstorm
In the dome room, wall detail
Inside the Pavilion at the Vegetable Garden

Jefferson designed the main house using neoclassical design principles described by Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio and reworking the design through much of his presidency to include design elements popular in late 18th-century Europe and integrating numerous ideas of his own.

Classical architecture

More or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius.

Sebastiano Serlio was the first to canonize the five Classical orders (Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite), in a prime example of classical architectural theory.
The emphatically classical church façade of Santa Maria Nova, Vicenza (1578&ndash;90) was designed by the influential Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.
The Glyptothek in Munich, designed by Leo von Klenze and built 1816&ndash;30, an example of Neoclassical architecture.
Croydon Airport in England, opened in 1920 and built in a Neoclassical style.

The Palladian architecture developed from the style of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) had a great influence long after his death, above all in Britain, where it was adopted for many of the grander buildings of the Georgian architecture of the 18th and early 19th century.

Barrel vault

Architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.

Coffered ceiling of the barrel-vaulted nave in the Temple of Jupiter at Diocletian's Palace in Split, Croatia. Built early 4th century.
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the Rose window at one end of the vault.
The Cloisters, New York City
Roman barrel vault at the villa rustica Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.
Barrel vault in a mausoleum at the Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Barrel vault in the early 20th century main post office of Toledo, Ohio

However, with the coming of the Renaissance and the Baroque style, and revived interest in art and architecture of antiquity, barrel vaulting was re-introduced on a truly grandiose scale, and employed in the construction of many famous buildings and churches, such as Basilica di Sant'Andrea di Mantova by Leone Battista Alberti, San Giorgio Maggiore by Andrea Palladio, and perhaps most glorious of all, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, where a huge barrel vault spans the 27 m-wide nave.

Doric order

One of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".
Two early Archaic Doric order Greek temples at Paestum (Italy) with much wider capitals than later
Entry to the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris), with four Doric columns in this photo.
Temple of the Delians, Delos; 19th-century pen-and-wash drawing
The Doric corner conflict
The Roman Doric order from the Theater of Marcellus: triglyphs centered over the end column
The Grange (nearby Northington, England), 1804, Europe's first house designed with all external detail of a Greek temple
Original Doric polychromy
Upper parts, labelled
Three Greek Doric columns
The Five Orders, originally illustrated by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, 1640
thumb|The ruins of the Temple of Poseidon from Sounion (Greece), 444–440 BC
Exterior of the Great Tomb of Lefkadia, circa 300 BC <ref>{{cite book |last1=Fullerton|first1=Mark D.|title=Art & Archaeology of The Roman World|date=2020|publisher=Thames & Hudson|isbn=978-0-500-051931|page=87|language=en}}</ref>
Capital on the Parthenon from Athens
Venus Temple at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli (Italy), detail from the roof
Fragment of an Ancient Roman Doric frieze in Palestrina (Italy)
Temple of Athena, Assos in Turkey
Renaissance marble altar enframement, circa 1530–1550, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Engraving of a Doric entablature from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, 1536, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Engraving of a Doric capital from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, circa 1537, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
The monumental fireplace in the ballroom of the Palace of Fontainebleau (France), with a Doric frieze on it
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Montpellier (France)
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Enkhuizen (the Netherlands)
Capital of a Doric pilaster from Lviv (Ukraine)
Die Sünde, by Franz Stuck, from 1893, in a frame with a pair of engaged Doric columns
Interior of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with Doric columns
The entrance of La Sorbonne from Paris, with a pair of Doric columns and an entablature with triglyphs and empty metopes

An illustration of Andrea Palladio's Doric order, as it was laid out, with modules identified, by Isaac Ware, in The Four Books of Palladio's Architecture (London, 1738) is illustrated at Vitruvian module.

Italian Renaissance

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was the patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici by Jacopo Pontormo
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Man
Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi and Solomon Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), the author of The Prince and prototypical Renaissance man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.
Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 x. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla (ca. 1423–1457).
Detail of The Last Judgment, 1536–1541, by Michelangelo
David by Donatello
Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502
Claudio Monteverdi by Bernardo Strozzi

1488–1576). Italian Renaissance architecture had a similar Europe-wide impact, as practised by Brunelleschi (1377–1446), Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), Andrea Palladio (1508–1580), and Bramante (1444–1514).