Andreas Vesalius

VesaliusVesalius, AndreasAndries van WeselAndré VésaleVesalioVesalius Rio Program: Anatomy of Art
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).wikipedia
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De humani corporis fabrica

De humani corporis fabrica libri septemAndreas Vesalius's ''FabricaOn the Structure of the Human Body
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. In the same year Vesalius took residence in Basel to help Johannes Oporinus publish the seven-volume De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of the human body), a groundbreaking work of human anatomy that he dedicated to Charles V. Many believe it was illustrated by Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, but evidence is lacking, and it is unlikely that a single artist created all 273 illustrations in a period of time so short.
De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.

University of Padua

PaduaPadua UniversityUniversity
He was professor at the University of Padua and later became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V.
Anatomist Andreas Vesalius held the chair of Surgery and Anatomy (explicator chirurgiae) and in 1543 published his anatomical discoveries in De Humani Corporis Fabrica.

Galen

Galenic medicineClaudius GalenusGalen of Pergamon
There he studied the theories of Galen under the auspices of Jacques Dubois (Jacobus Sylvius) and Jean Fernel.
His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations.

Old University of Leuven

University of LeuvenLeuven UniversityUniversity of Louvain
His great grandfather, Jan van Wesel, probably born in Wesel, received a medical degree from the University of Pavia and taught medicine in 1528 at the University of Leuven.
The university flourished in the 16th century due to the presence of famous scholars and professors, such as Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens (Pope Adrian VI), Desiderius Erasmus, Johannes Molanus, Joan Lluís Vives, Andreas Vesalius and Gerardus Mercator.

Holy Innocents' Cemetery

Les InnocentsCemetery of the InnocentsChurch of the Holy Innocents
It was during this time that he developed an interest in anatomy, and he was often found examining excavated bones in the charnel houses at the Cemetery of the Innocents.
In the 16th century, the prominent Renaissance anatomist Andreas Vesalius studied the bones of corpses in the Holy Innocents cemetery.

Jacopo Berengario da Carpi

Berengario da CarpiBerenger
Although modern anatomical texts had been published by Mondino and Berenger, much of their work was clouded by reverence for Galen and Arabian doctrines.
His book "Anatomia Carpi" published in 1535 made him the most important anatomist before Andreas Vesalius.

Basel

Basel, SwitzerlandBasleBasel XI
In 1543, Vesalius conducted a public dissection of the body of Jakob Karrer von Gebweiler, a notorious felon from the city of Basel, Switzerland.
In 1543, De humani corporis fabrica, the first book on human anatomy, was published and printed in Basel by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564).

Salamanca

Salamanca, Spain Salamanca, SpainCave at Salamanca
In 1551, Charles V commissioned an inquiry in Salamanca to investigate the religious implications of his methods.
In 1551, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered an inquiry to find out if the science of Andreas Vesalius, physician and anatomist, was in line with Catholic doctrine.

Padua

PadovaPadova, ItalyPatavium
On the day of his graduation he was immediately offered the chair of surgery and anatomy (explicator chirurgiae) at Padua.
The list of notable professors and alumni is long, containing, among others, the names of Bembo, Sperone Speroni, the anatomist Vesalius, Copernicus, Fallopius, Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, Galileo Galilei, William Harvey, Pietro Pomponazzi, Reginald, later Cardinal Pole, Scaliger, Tasso and Jan Zamoyski.

Brethren of the Common Life

Brothers and Sisters of the Common LifeWindesheimer congregation
Anders encouraged his son to continue in the family tradition, and enrolled him in the Brethren of the Common Life in Brussels to learn Greek and Latin prior to learning medicine, according to standards of the era.
The Brethren spared no pains to obtain good masters, if necessary from foreign countries, for their schools, which became centres of spiritual and intellectual life of the Catholic Church; amongst those whom they trained or who were associated with them were men like Thomas à Kempis, Dierick Maertens, Gabriel Biel, the physician Vesalius, Jan Standonck (1454–1504), priest and reformer, Master of the Collège de Montaigu in Paris, and the Dutch Pope Adrian VI.

Jacques Dubois

SylviusJacobus SylviusSylvius
There he studied the theories of Galen under the auspices of Jacques Dubois (Jacobus Sylvius) and Jean Fernel.
Vesalius, who was his (frustrated) pupil, states that his manner of teaching was calculated neither to advance the science nor to rectify the mistakes of his predecessors.

Human body

bodyhuman anatomyhuman physiology
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. In the same year Vesalius took residence in Basel to help Johannes Oporinus publish the seven-volume De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of the human body), a groundbreaking work of human anatomy that he dedicated to Charles V. Many believe it was illustrated by Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, but evidence is lacking, and it is unlikely that a single artist created all 273 illustrations in a period of time so short.
In the Renaissance, Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) pioneered the modern study of human anatomy by dissection, writing the influential book De humani corporis fabrica.

Valet de chambre

kammerjunkervalets de chambrehofjunker
His grandfather, Everard van Wesel, was the Royal Physician of Emperor Maximilian, while his father, Anders van Wesel, served as apothecary to Maximilian, and later valet de chambre to his successor Charles V.
Andries van Vesel, apothecary to the Holy Roman Emperors, and father of the great anatomist Vesalius

Jan van Calcar

Jan Stephen van CalcarJohan van CalcarJohannes Stephanus of Calcar
In Venice, he met the illustrator Johan van Calcar, a student of Titian. In the same year Vesalius took residence in Basel to help Johannes Oporinus publish the seven-volume De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of the human body), a groundbreaking work of human anatomy that he dedicated to Charles V. Many believe it was illustrated by Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, but evidence is lacking, and it is unlikely that a single artist created all 273 illustrations in a period of time so short.
Giorgio Vasari, Carel van Mander, and others credit Calcar with the eleven large woodcut illustrations of anatomical studies which accompanied Andreas Vesalius's work on anatomy.

Johannes Oporinus

Giovanni Oporino
In the same year Vesalius took residence in Basel to help Johannes Oporinus publish the seven-volume De humani corporis fabrica (On the fabric of the human body), a groundbreaking work of human anatomy that he dedicated to Charles V. Many believe it was illustrated by Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, but evidence is lacking, and it is unlikely that a single artist created all 273 illustrations in a period of time so short.
The most important publication of his shop was the anatomical atlas De humani corporis fabrica by the humanist physician Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), editio princeps in 1543.

Michael Servetus

ServetusMiguel ServetMichel de Villeneuve
Vesalius' work on the vascular and circulatory systems was his greatest contribution to modern medicine. In his dissections of the heart, Vesalius became convinced that Galen's claims of a porous Interventricular septum were false. This fact was previously described by Michael Servetus, a fellow of Vesalius, but never reached the public, for it was written down in the "Manuscript of Paris", in 1546, and published later in his Christianismi Restitutio (1553), a book regarded as heretical by the Inquisition. Only three copies survived, but these remained hidden for decades, the rest having been burned shortly after publication. In the second edition Vesalius published that the septum was indeed waterproof, discovering (and naming), the mitral valve to explain the blood flow.
In Paris, his teachers included Sylvius, Fernel and Johann Winter von Andernach, who hailed him with Andrea Vesalius as his most able assistant in dissections.

Rete mirabile

retia mirabiliarete mirabilisrete
Other famous examples of Vesalius disproving Galen's assertions were his discoveries that the lower jaw (mandible) was composed of only one bone, not two (which Galen had assumed based on animal dissection) and that humans lack the rete mirabile, a network of blood vessels at the base of the brain that is found in sheep and other ungulates.
The ancient physician Galen mistakenly thought that humans also have a rete mirabile in the neck, apparently based on dissection of sheep and misidentifying the results with the human carotid sinus, and ascribed important properties to it; it fell to Berengario da Carpi first, and then to Vesalius to demonstrate the error.

Vesalius College

Vesalius College
It is named after Andreas Vesalius, one of the first and foremost pioneers in the study of Anatomy who lived during the Renaissance period.

Physician writer

List of physician writers (20th century)poet
Physician writer
Andreas Vesalius (1514–64) Belgian anatomist, author of De humani corporis fabrica

Gabriele Falloppio

FallopiusFallopioFallopius, Gabriel
When he reached Jerusalem he received a message from the Venetian senate requesting him again to accept the Paduan professorship, which had become vacant on the death of his friend and pupil Fallopius.
This was the golden age of anatomy and Falloppio's contemporaries included such great anatomists as Vesalius, Eustachius, and Realdo Colombo (whom he succeeded at Padua).

Medical Renaissance

medical revolution
Medical Renaissance
Following after is Andreas Vesalius's publication of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human body) in 1543.

Brain Renaissance

Brain Renaissance
It was published on the 500th anniversary of the birth and the 450th anniversary of the death of the anatomist Andreas Vesalius.

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
The real significance of the book is his attempt to support his arguments by the location and continuity of the venous system from his observations rather than appeal to earlier published works.
Better known discovery of pulmonary circulation was by Vesalius's successor at Padua, Realdo Colombo, in 1559.

Timeline of medicine and medical technology

medical author in antiquity
Timeline of medicine and medical technology
1543 – Andreas Vesalius publishes De Fabrica Corporis Humani which corrects Greek medical errors and revolutionizes European medicine

Zakynthos

ZanteZacynthusZacynthos
After struggling for many days with adverse winds in the Ionian Sea, he was shipwrecked on the island of Zakynthos.
The famous Renaissance surgeon and anatomist Andreas Vesalius died on Zakynthos after being shipwrecked while making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.