A report on Andrew Jackson

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
General Andrew Jackson as pictured in Harper's Magazine, Vol 28, "War with the Creek Indians", page 605, 1864
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Muscogee surrendered large parts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.
General Andrew Jackson by John Wesley Jarvis, c. undefined 1819
The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by Thomas Sully in 1845 from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
1828 election results
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of the major tribes of the Southeast from their traditional territories, many along the Trail of Tears.
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
1832 election results
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching
USS Porpoise (1836), a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May 1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
A New York newspaper blamed the Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson, depicted in spectacles and top hat.
Mezzotint after a Daguerreotype of Jackson by Mathew Brady, April 15, 1845
Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage
Andrew Jackson as Grand Master of Tennessee, 1822
Equestrian statue of Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
2-cent red stamp
2-cent green stamp
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage

American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

- Andrew Jackson
Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835

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Van Buren by Mathew Brady, c. 1855–1858

Martin Van Buren

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American lawyer and statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841.

American lawyer and statesman who served as the eighth president of the United States from 1837 to 1841.

Van Buren by Mathew Brady, c. 1855–1858
Van Buren's birthplace by John Warner Barber
Baptism record indicating the Dutch spelling of Van Buren's first name, "Maarten"
Hannah Van Buren
Painting of Van Buren by Daniel Dickinson, c. 1820s
Mrs Floride Calhoun, a leader of the "petticoats"
A painting of Van Buren by Francis Alexander, c. undefined 1830
1836 electoral vote results
Painting of Van Buren by Henry Inman, c. 1837–38
The modern balaam and his ass, an 1837 caricature placing the blame for the Panic of 1837 and the perilous state of the banking system on outgoing President Andrew Jackson, shown riding a donkey, while President Martin Van Buren comments approvingly
A United States Marine Corps boat expedition searching the Everglades during the Second Seminole War
"Destruction of the Caroline", illustration by John Charles Dent (1881)
1840 electoral vote results
Daguerreotype of Van Buren by Mathew Brady, c. 1849–50
Daguerreotype of Martin Van Buren, circa 1855
1858 portrait by GPA Healy, on display at the White House
Gubernatorial portrait of Martin Van Buren by Daniel Huntington in The Civil War

Following the 1824 presidential election, Van Buren sought to re-establish a two-party system with partisan differences based on ideology rather than personalities or sectional differences; he supported Andrew Jackson's candidacy in the 1828 presidential election with this goal in mind.

Clay photographed in 1848

Henry Clay

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American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.

American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.

Clay photographed in 1848
Henry Clay and Lucretia
View of Henry Clay's law office (1803–1810), Lexington, Kentucky
Portrait by Matthew Harris Jouett, 1818
Clay helped Adams win the 1825 contingent House election after Clay failed to finish among the three electoral vote-winners. States in orange voted for Crawford, states in green for Adams, and states in blue for Jackson.
Portrait of Henry Clay
Clay supported construction of the National Road, which extended west from Cumberland, Maryland.
Henry Clay, circa 1832
Andrew Jackson defeated Clay in the 1832 election
Clay (brown) won the backing of several state delegations on the first ballot of the 1839 Whig National Convention, but William Henry Harrison ultimately won the party's presidential nomination.
James K. Polk defeated Clay in the 1844 election.
Clay (brown) won the backing of numerous delegates on the first ballot of the 1848 Whig National Convention, but Zachary Taylor ultimately won the party's presidential nomination.
Henry Clay Jr., who died serving in the Mexican–American War
Henry Clay monument and mausoleum, Lexington Cemetery
Clay's estate, Ashland, in Lexington, Kentucky

Despite receiving support from Clay and other National Republicans, Adams was defeated by Democrat Andrew Jackson in the 1828 presidential election.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady

John Quincy Adams

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American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady
Adams's birthplace in Quincy, Massachusetts
1815 US passport issued by John Quincy Adams at London.
Adams portrait – Gilbert Stuart, 1818
Painting of John Quincy Adams by Thomas Sully, 1824
In the Adams–Onís Treaty, the United States acquired Florida and set the western border of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.
1824 presidential election results
General Andrew Jackson, Adams's opponent in the 1824 and 1828 United States presidential elections
Painting of Quincy Adams by Charles Osgood, 1828
Quincy Adams appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State
1828 presidential election results
Daguerreotype of Quincy Adams by Philip Haas, 1843
Portrait of Quincy Adams by William Hudson, 1844
John Quincy Adams, c. 1840s, Unknown author
BEP engraved portrait of Adams as president
Adams's portrait at the U.S. National Portrait Gallery by George Bingham c. 1850 copy of an 1844 original
Adams's cenotaph at the Congressional Cemetery
John Quincy Adams's original tomb at Hancock Cemetery, across the street from United First Parish Church
Presidential Dollar of John Quincy Adams
Official portrait of Adams by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1858
Peacefield - John Quincy Adam's Home
Tombs of Presidents John Adams (far left) and John Quincy Adams (right) and their wives Abigail and Louisa, in a family crypt beneath the United First Parish Church.

Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay — all members of the Democratic-Republican Party — competed in the 1824 presidential election.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

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Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

Supported by American militia under General Andrew Jackson, they won a series of victories, culminating in the capture of Pensacola in November 1814.

Portrait by George Peter Alexander Healy c. undefined 1845

John C. Calhoun

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American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina who held many important positions including being the seventh vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832, while adamantly defending slavery and protecting the interests of the white South.

American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina who held many important positions including being the seventh vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832, while adamantly defending slavery and protecting the interests of the white South.

Portrait by George Peter Alexander Healy c. undefined 1845
Calhoun's wife, Floride Calhoun
Charles Bird King's 1822 portrait of Calhoun at the age of 40
State historic marker at Fort Hill, Calhoun's home from 1825 until his death in 1850
A portrait of Calhoun from 1834 by Rembrandt Peale
Calhoun, during his tenure as Secretary of State (April 1844 – March 1845)
Daguerreotype of Calhoun, c. 1843
Calhoun photographed by Mathew Brady in 1849, shortly before his death
Calhoun's grave at St. Philip's Church yard in Charleston
George Peter Alexander Healy's 1851 painting of Calhoun on exhibit at City Hall in Charleston, South Carolina
Calhoun's home, Fort Hill, on the grounds that became part of Clemson University, in Clemson, South Carolina
Undated photograph of Calhoun
John C. Calhoun postage stamp, CSA issue of 1862, unused
Confederate First issue banknote depicting both Calhoun and Andrew Jackson (Act of March 9, 1861)
John C. Calhoun statue in National Statuary Hall Collection at the U.S. Capitol

He served under John Quincy Adams and continued under Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in the election of 1828.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. undefined 1849

James K. Polk

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The 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849.

The 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. undefined 1849
Reconstruction of the log cabin in Pineville, North Carolina where Polk was born
c. 1846–49 daguerreotype of James K. Polk and Sarah Childress Polk
The house where Polk spent his young adult life before his presidency, in Columbia, Tennessee, is his only private residence still standing. It is now known as the James K. Polk Home.
1844 campaign banner for the Polk/Dallas ticket, produced by Nathaniel Currier
Results of the 1844 presidential election
The White House 1846
203x203px
President Polk, BEP engraved portrait
The inauguration of James K. Polk, as shown in the Illustrated London News, v. 6, April 19, 1845
Polk and his cabinet in the White House dining room, 1846. Front row, left to right: John Y. Mason, William L. Marcy, James K. Polk, Robert J. Walker. Back row, left to right: Cave Johnson, George Bancroft. Secretary of State James Buchanan is absent. This was the first photograph taken in the White House, and the first of a presidential Cabinet.
Map of Oregon Country, which the Oregon Treaty split between the Americans and British at the 49th parallel
Map of Mexico in 1845, with the Republic of Texas, the Republic of Yucatan and the disputed territory between Mexico and Texas in red. Mexico claimed to own all of Texas.
Polk's presidential proclamation of war against Mexico
Overview map of the war
War News from Mexico (1848)
Antonio López de Santa Anna, 1847
The Mexican Cession (in red) was acquired through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Gadsden Purchase (in orange) was acquired through purchase after Polk left office.
United States states and territories when Polk entered office
United States states and territories when Polk left office
Polk's official White House portrait, by George Peter Alexander Healy, 1858
The California Gold Rush began under Polk.
Associate Justice Levi Woodbury (c. 1850)
Robert C. Grier, one of President Polk's two appointees to the Supreme Court
Results of the 1848 presidential election
James K. Polk's tomb lies on the grounds of the Tennessee State Capitol
Polk Place, briefly James Polk's home and long that of his widow
Elias Polk depicted later in life was a valet to James Polk, being the only known image of a Polk household slave.
A statue of Polk at the North Carolina State Capitol

A protégé of Andrew Jackson, he was a member of the Democratic Party and an advocate of Jacksonian democracy.

Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art

Muscogee

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The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Muscogee Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ( in the Muscogee language), are a group of related indigenous (Native American) peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America.

The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Muscogee Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ( in the Muscogee language), are a group of related indigenous (Native American) peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America.

Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art
Etowah Mound C, was part of a precontact Mississippian culture site, occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people from c. 1000–1550 CE, in Cartersville, Georgia
Hernando de Soto and his men burn Mabila, after a surprise attack by Chief Tuskaloosa and his people in 1540; painting by Herb Roe, 2008
The protohistoric King Site, occupied during the mid-1500s
A raiding party against Spanish missions in Florida passes the Ocmulgee trading post
Yamacraw leader Tomochichi and nephew in 1733
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
William Augustus Bowles (1763–1805) was also known as Estajoca, his Muscogee name.
Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee to support the Shawnee's resistance.
Menawa was one of the principal leaders of the Red Sticks. After the war, he continued to oppose white encroachment on Muscogee lands, visiting Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King, 1837.
Depiction of Red Eagle's surrender to Andrew Jackson after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford's boldness that he let him go.
Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh
Members of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. They included men of mixed Creek, European and African ancestry.
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief.
Muscogee Creek land cessions 1733–1832
Ceded area as deemed by the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814
Muscogee Creek bike messenger, originally from Okmulgee, Oklahoma
Micah Wesley, Muscogee Creek-Kiowa artist and DJ

Once the northern Muscogee Creek rebellion had been put down by General Andrew Jackson with the aid of the Southern Muscogee Creek, the Muscogee nation was forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ceded much land to the US, including land belonging to the Southern Muscogee who had fought alongside Jackson.

William Weatherford surrendering to Andrew Jackson

Creek War

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Regional war between opposing Indigenous American Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place largely in modern-day Alabama and along the Gulf Coast.

Regional war between opposing Indigenous American Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place largely in modern-day Alabama and along the Gulf Coast.

William Weatherford surrendering to Andrew Jackson
Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology
Map of battle sites in the Creek War
U.S. troops storm the breastworks at Horseshoe Bend
Territory ceded by the Creek Confederation in 1814 under the Treaty of Fort Jackson

The war effectively ended with the Treaty of Fort Jackson (August 1814), when General Andrew Jackson forced the Creek confederacy to surrender more than 21 million acres in what is now southern Georgia and central Alabama.

Cartoon depicting the political conflict between Andrew Jackson and Nicholas Biddle over the Second Bank of the United States

Bank War

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Cartoon depicting the political conflict between Andrew Jackson and Nicholas Biddle over the Second Bank of the United States
The north façade of the Second Bank of the United States, facing Chestnut Street (2013)
President Andrew Jackson
President of the Second Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle
A political cartoon depicting Jackson battling the many-headed monster of the Bank
Secretary of the Treasury Louis McLane
Senator Henry Clay
Senator Daniel Webster
This cartoon, "King Andrew the First", depicted Jackson as a tyrannical king, trampling on the Constitution.
Treasury Secretary Roger B. Taney
Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri

The Bank War was a political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States (B.U.S.) during the presidency of Andrew Jackson (1829–1837).

Democratic-Republican Party

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American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, agrarianism, political equality, and expansionism.

American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, agrarianism, political equality, and expansionism.

Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams in the 1800 presidential election, thereby becoming the first Democratic-Republican president.
The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 totaled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
Albert Gallatin served as Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.
James Monroe, the third Democratic-Republican president
Four Democratic-Republicans sought the presidency in 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay.
John Quincy Adams won the 1824 presidential election as a Democratic-Republican after leaving the Federalist Party earlier in his career.
Presidential election results from 1796 to 1824. Darker shades of green indicate that the state generally supported the Democratic-Republicans, and darker shades of brown indicate that the state generally supported the Federalists.
John Randolph of Roanoke was a prominent member of a group of Southern plantation owners known as the Old Republicans.
Andrew Jackson led a faction of Democratic-Republicans that ultimately coalesced into the Democratic Party.

Lacking an effective opposition, the Democratic-Republicans split into groups after the 1824 presidential election; one faction supported President John Quincy Adams, while the other faction backed General Andrew Jackson.