The storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain's government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain's recognition of the United States as an independent state.
Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835
General Andrew Jackson standing on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans, the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
The Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil War
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
Army soldiers in 1890
General Andrew Jackson as pictured in Harper's Magazine, Vol 28, "War with the Creek Indians", page 605, 1864
U.S. Army troops assaulting a German bunker in France, c. 1918
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Muscogee surrendered large parts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.
U.S. soldiers hunting for Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign
General Andrew Jackson by John Wesley Jarvis, c. undefined 1819
U.S. Army soldiers observing an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the Korean War
The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
US tanks and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, 1961
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by Thomas Sully in 1845 from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
A U.S. Army infantry patrol moving up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army position at Dak To, South Vietnam during Operation Hawthorne
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
U.S. Army soldiers preparing to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during Operation Just Cause
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
M1 Abrams tanks moving out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf War
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the Gulf War, February 1991
1828 election results
U.S. Army Rangers taking part in a raid during an operation in Nahr-e Saraj, Afghanistan
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
U.S. Army soldiers with the 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division returning fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 2011
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of the major tribes of the Southeast from their traditional territories, many along the Trail of Tears.
Organization of the United States Army within the Department of Defense
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
U.S. Army organization chart
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
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1832 election results
U.S. Army soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard conducting an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New Jersey
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
U.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, Iraq
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching
The 1st Cavalry Division's combat aviation brigade performing a mock charge with the horse detachment
USS Porpoise (1836), a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May 1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrolling a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan
A New York newspaper blamed the Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson, depicted in spectacles and top hat.
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Mezzotint after a Daguerreotype of Jackson by Mathew Brady, April 15, 1845
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Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage
U.S. Army Rangers practicing fast roping techniques from an MH-47 during an exercise at Fort Bragg
Andrew Jackson as Grand Master of Tennessee, 1822
A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division assisting Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji, Iraq on 18 July 2016
Equestrian statue of Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
U.S. Army soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
A Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system used for ballistic missile protection
2-cent red stamp
A U.S. soldier on patrol in Iraq with the support of a Humvee vehicle
2-cent green stamp
3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage
The 2020 Army Greens uniform
An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, wearing ASUs, representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow
The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in their tan berets and former service uniform

Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of the U.S. Congress.

- Andrew Jackson

Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, and became a national hero.

- United States Army
The storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain's government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain's recognition of the United States as an independent state.

4 related topics

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Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

Conflict fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Conflict fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

Supported by American militia under General Andrew Jackson, they won a series of victories, culminating in the capture of Pensacola in November 1814.

The United States Army was initially much larger than the British Army in North America.

Seminole

The Seminole are a Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century.

The Seminole are a Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century.

Coeehajo, Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Sign at Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park commemorating hundreds of enslaved African Americans who in the early 1820s escaped from this area to freedom in the Bahamas.
Seminole woman, painted by George Catlin, 1834
Seminole family of tribal elder, Cypress Tiger, at their camp near Kendall, Florida, 1916. Photo taken by botanist, John Kunkel Small
Seminole patchwork shawl made by Susie Cypress from Big Cypress Indian Reservation, ca. 1980s
Seminoles' Thanksgiving meal mid-1950s
A Seminole spearing a garfish from a dugout, Florida, 1930
Seminole clipper ship card

After the United States achieved independence, the U.S. Army and local militia groups made increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish Florida to recapture escaped slaves living among the Seminole.

American general Andrew Jackson's 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole became known as the First Seminole War.

The U.S. ideal of the citizen soldier, in the militia, depicted by The Concord Minute Man of 1775, a monument created by Daniel Chester French and erected in 1875, in Concord, Massachusetts.

Militia (United States)

The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.

The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.

The U.S. ideal of the citizen soldier, in the militia, depicted by The Concord Minute Man of 1775, a monument created by Daniel Chester French and erected in 1875, in Concord, Massachusetts.
First Muster, Spring 1637, Massachusetts Bay Colony
Braddock's defeat, 1755
The Battle of Lexington, April 19th, 1775. Blue coated militiamen in the foreground flee from the volley of gunshots from the red coated British Army line in the background with dead and wounded militiamen on the ground.
Kentucky Mounted Militia riflemen at the Battle of the Thames in October 1813, riding into battle as mounted infantry.
1826 North Carolina militia roster of 86 men, standard wage of 46 1⁄2 cents per day. Text reads: "A List of that Part of the Millitia Commanded by Elisha Burk an went after the Runaway Negroes. ... The within is a True Return of that part of the Millitia Commanded by Elisha Burk While out after the Runaway Negroes: Given under my hand this 15th day of August 1826". (signed) Elisha Burk Captain.
New York state militia, Civil War Company "E", 22nd N.Y. State Militia, near Harpers Ferry.
Militia at Ludlow, 1914

American General Andrew Jackson conducted operations against the Creek Indians.

Created by the 1933 amendments to the National Defense Act of 1916, the National Guard of the United States is a joint reserve component of the United States Army and the United States Air Force.

Florida

State located in the Southeastern region of the United States.

State located in the Southeastern region of the United States.

Map of Florida, likely based on the expeditions of Hernando de Soto (1539–1543)
The Castillo de San Marcos. Originally white with red corners, its design reflects the colors and shapes of the Cross of Burgundy and the subsequent Flag of Florida.
East Florida and West Florida in British period (1763–1783)
A Cracker cowboy, 19th century
A U.S. Marine boat searching the Everglades for Seminoles (hiding in foreground) during the Second Seminole War
The Battle of Olustee during the American Civil War, 1864
People at the newly opened Don Cesar Hotel in St. Pete Beach, Florida in 1928
White segregationists (foreground) trying to prevent black people from swimming at a "White only" beach in St. Augustine during the 1964 Monson Motor Lodge protests
Miami's Freedom Tower, built in 1925, was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
Memorials left on the fence of the Pulse nightclub in Orlando in 2016
Florida is mostly low-lying and flat as this topographic map shows.
The state tree, Sabal palmetto, flourishes in Florida's overall warm climate.
An alligator in the Florida Everglades
West Indian manatee
Red mangroves in Everglades National Park
Fish and corals in John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park near Key Largo
American flamingos in South Florida
An American alligator and an invasive Burmese python in Everglades National Park
The Florida Keys as seen from a satellite
All of the 67 counties in Florida
Population density of Florida according to the 2020 census
Cuban men playing dominoes in Miami's Little Havana. In 2010, Cubans made up 34.4% of Miami's population and 6.5% of Florida's.
Church of the Little Flower in Coral Gables, Florida
Hindu Temple of Florida in Tampa
Old and New Florida State Capitol, Tallahassee, East view
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
Florida Supreme Court building in Tallahassee
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
Miami Art Deco District, built during the 1920s–1930s
University of Miami, Coral Gables
University of Central Florida, Orlando
Florida International University, Miami
University of South Florida, Tampa
Florida State University, Tallahassee
University of Florida, Gainesville
The Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay is a part of Florida's interstate system.
Orlando International Airport is the busiest airport in the state with 44.6million total passengers traveled in 2017.
Brightline train at Fort Lauderdale
The Miami Metrorail is the state's only rapid transit system. About 15% of Miamians use public transit daily.
American Airlines Arena in Miami
Marlins Park in Little Havana
Daytona International Speedway is home to various auto racing events.
In God We Trust motto on Florida license plate with a orange blossom the state flower
The Florida panther is the state animal.

The United States Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign against the Seminole Indians by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole War.