A report on Android (robot)

Early example of the term androides used to describe human-like mechanical devices, London Times, 22 December 1795
DER 01, a Japanese actroid
EveR-2, the first android that can sing
Dr. William Barry (left) with Maria Bot (right)
Dr. William Barry (right) and a fan pose with Maria Bot (center)

Humanoid robot or other artificial being often made from a flesh-like material.

- Android (robot)
Early example of the term androides used to describe human-like mechanical devices, London Times, 22 December 1795

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A Haruka Actroid at Expo 2005 in Aichi Prefecture

Gynoid

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Feminine humanoid robot.

Feminine humanoid robot.

A Haruka Actroid at Expo 2005 in Aichi Prefecture
“Sweetheart”, shown with its creator, Clayton Bailey; the busty feminine robot (also a functional coffee maker) created a controversy after it was displayed at the Lawrence Hall of Science at University of California, Berkeley
Étienne Maurice Falconet: Pygmalion et Galatée (1763). Although not robotic, Galatea's inorganic origin has led to comparisons with gynoids.
Exaggeratedly feminine fembots with guns in their breasts, from the film Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery

Though the term android has been used to refer to robotic humanoids regardless of apparent gender, the Greek prefix "andr-" refers to man in the masculine sense.

ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005

Robot

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Machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

Machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005
Articulated welding robots used in a factory are a type of industrial robot
The quadrupedal military robot Cheetah, an evolution of BigDog (pictured), was clocked as the world's fastest legged robot in 2012, beating the record set by an MIT bipedal robot in 1989.
KITT (a fictional robot) is mentally anthropomorphic.
iCub is physically anthropomorphic.
Al-Jazari – A Musical Toy
Su Song's astronomical clock tower showing the mechanical figurines which chimed the hours.
Model of Leonardo's robot with inner workings. Possibly constructed by Leonardo da Vinci around 1495.
The Brennan torpedo, one of the earliest 'guided missiles'
W. H. Richards with "George", 1932
U.S. Patent 2,988,237, issued in 1961 to Devol.
A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), showing three robots
A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine
A pick and place robot in a factory
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo International Robot Exhibition (IREX) 2009
An android, or robot designed to resemble a human, can appear comforting to some people and disturbing to others
A general-purpose robot acts as a guide during the day and a security guard at night.
An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without needing lines or beacons in the workspace.
A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq.
The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a single, menial job
The Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
Toy robots on display at the Museo del Objeto del Objeto in Mexico City.
Italian movie The Mechanical Man (1921), the first film to have shown a battle between robots.

The play begins in a factory that uses a chemical substitute for protoplasm to manufacture living, simplified people called robots. The play does not focus in detail on the technology behind the creation of these living creatures, but in their appearance they prefigure modern ideas of androids, creatures who can be mistaken for humans.

A scene from the play, showing three robots

R.U.R.

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1920 science-fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek.

1920 science-fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek.

A scene from the play, showing three robots
The robots breaking into the factory at the end of Act III
Poster for a Federal Theatre Project production of R.U.R. directed by Remo Bufano in New York, 1939
Final scene of Act III
U.S. WPA Federal Theatre Project poster for the production by the Marionette Theatre, New York, 1939
Cover of the first edition of the play designed by Josef Čapek, Aventinum, Prague, 1920

Later terminology would call them androids.) Robots may be mistaken for humans and can think for themselves.

The Shadow robot hand system

Robotics

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Interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering.

Interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering.

The Shadow robot hand system
Mechanical construction
Electrical aspect
A level of programming
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
A robotic leg powered by air muscles
KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry
Puma, one of the first industrial robots
Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney Brooks
Lefty, first checker playing robot
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya
TALON military robots used by the United States Army
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment), the right one 10.
Capuchin, a climbing robot
Robotic Fish: iSplash-II
The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos
Radar, GPS, and lidar, are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge)
Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
Puppet Magnus, a robot-manipulated marionette with complex control systems.
Experimental planar robot arm and sensor-based, open-architecture robot controller developed at Sunderland University, UK in 2000
RuBot II can manually resolve Rubik's cubes.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo IREX 2009.
Two Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers stand with three vehicles, providing a size comparison of three generations of Mars rovers. Front and center is the flight spare for the first Mars rover, Sojourner, which landed on Mars in 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Project. On the left is a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) test vehicle that is a working sibling to Spirit and Opportunity, which landed on Mars in 2004. On the right is a test rover for the Mars Science Laboratory, which landed Curiosity on Mars in 2012. Sojourner is 65 cm long. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) are 1.6 m long. Curiosity on the right is 3 m long.
The SCORBOT-ER 4u educational robot
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy: MobileRobots, Inc.)

The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – very similar to the modern ideas of androids.

Theatrical release poster by John Alvin

Blade Runner

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1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, and adapted by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples.

1982 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, and adapted by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples.

Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Map of Ridleyville, exterior sets for Blade Runner located on the New York Street of the Warner Bros. Studios lot (Burbank, California).
The Bradbury Building in Los Angeles was a filming location.
A "spinner" (police variant) on display at Disney-MGM Studios in the 1990s
A police spinner flying beside enormous skyscrapers, some with electronic billboards on them. Special effects such as these were benchmarks and have been highly influential on the esthetics of subsequent sci-fi movies.
Tesla's Cybertruck was heavily inspired by Blade Runner
Screen capture of DVD bonus feature from Prometheus (2012), a dictated letter by Peter Weyland about Eldon Tyrell, chief executive officer of the Tyrell Corporation

Starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos, it is an adaptation of Philip K. Dick's 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? The film is set in a dystopian future Los Angeles of 2019, in which synthetic humans known as replicants are bio-engineered by the powerful Tyrell Corporation to work on space colonies.

Honda P series: P1 (1993), P2 (1996), P3 (1997), P4 (2000)

Humanoid robot

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Robot resembling the human body in shape.

Robot resembling the human body in shape.

Honda P series: P1 (1993), P2 (1996), P3 (1997), P4 (2000)
Model of Leonardo's robot with inner workings.
iCub robot at the Genoa Science Festival, Italy, in 2009
Valkyrie, from NASA
An artificial hand holding a lightbulb

Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.

The Future Eve

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Symbolist science fiction novel by the French author Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam.

Symbolist science fiction novel by the French author Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam.

Begun in 1878 and originally published in 1886, the novel is known for popularizing the term "Android".

Cover of first hardback edition

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

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Dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968.

Dystopian science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968.

Cover of first hardback edition

The main plot follows Rick Deckard, a bounty hunter who is tasked with "retiring" (i.e. killing) six escaped Nexus-6 model androids, while a secondary plot follows John Isidore, a man of sub-par IQ who aids the fugitive androids.

Karel Čapek

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Czech writer, playwright and critic.

Czech writer, playwright and critic.

House of Čapek brothers in Prague 10, Vinohrady
Tomb of Karel Čapek and Olga Scheinpflugová at Vyšehrad cemetery

Čapek's first international success was R.U.R., a dystopian work about a bad day at a factory populated with sentient androids.

Dick in the 1960s

Philip K. Dick

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American science fiction writer.

American science fiction writer.

Dick in the 1960s

Dick was recreated by his fans in the form of a simulacrum or remote-controlled android designed in his likeness.