Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemicanemiasrefractory anemialow red blood cellsred blood cellstoo few red blood cellsHeinz body anemialoss of red blood cells
Anemia (also spelled anaemia) is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.wikipedia
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Pallor

pale skinpalepale appearance
Anemia must be significant before a person becomes noticeably pale.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and may also be visible as pallor of the conjunctivae of the eyes on physical examination.

Thalassemia

thalassaemiathalassaemiasBeta-Thalassemia
Causes of decreased production include iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, thalassemia, and a number of neoplasms of the bone marrow.
Often there is mild to severe anemia (low red blood cells).

Hemoglobin

haemoglobinoxyhemoglobindeoxyhemoglobin
Anemia (also spelled anaemia) is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
This is an effect of intravascular hemolysis, in which hemoglobin separates from red blood cells, a form of anemia.

Macrocytic anemia

macrocyticmacrocytic anaemiaanemia, macrocytic
If the cells are small, it is called microcytic anemia; if they are large, it is called macrocytic anemia; and if they are normal sized, it is called normocytic anemia.
A macrocytic class of anemia is an anemia (defined as blood with an insufficient concentration of hemoglobin) in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are larger than their normal volume.

Microcytic anemia

microcyticmicrocytic anaemia
If the cells are small, it is called microcytic anemia; if they are large, it is called macrocytic anemia; and if they are normal sized, it is called normocytic anemia.
Microcytic anaemia is any of several types of anaemia characterized by small red blood cells (called microcytes).

Normocytic anemia

normocytic
If the cells are small, it is called microcytic anemia; if they are large, it is called macrocytic anemia; and if they are normal sized, it is called normocytic anemia.
Normocytic anemia is a type of anemia and is a common issue that occurs for men and women typically over 85 years old.

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
The use of blood transfusions is typically based on a person's signs and symptoms.
The advisory caution to use blood transfusion only with more severe anemia is in part due to evidence that outcomes are worsened if larger amounts are given.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if pre-existing heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.
Other causes include anemia, abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
Anemia (also spelled anaemia) is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Examples (with non-American letter in bold): aeon, anaemia, anaesthesia, caecum, caesium, coeliac, diarrhoea, encyclopaedia, faeces, foetal, gynaecology, haemoglobin, haemophilia, leukaemia, oesophagus, oestrogen, orthopaedic, palaeontology, paediatric, paedophile.

Mean corpuscular volume

MCVmean cell volumemean red cell volume
Anemia can also be classified based on the size of the red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin in each cell.
In patients with anemia, it is the MCV measurement that allows classification as either a microcytic anemia (MCV below normal range), normocytic anemia (MCV within normal range) or macrocytic anemia (MCV above normal range).

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
Causes of increased breakdown include genetic conditions such as sickle cell anemia, infections such as malaria, and certain autoimmune diseases.
A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain ("sickle cell crisis"), anemia, swelling in the hands and feet, bacterial infections and stroke.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if pre-existing heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.
Other diseases that may have symptoms similar to heart failure include obesity, kidney failure, liver problems, anemia, and thyroid disease.

Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
Causes of increased breakdown include genetic conditions such as sickle cell anemia, infections such as malaria, and certain autoimmune diseases.
Possible causes include respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis, noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema, concomitant pneumonia, and severe anaemia.

Hemolytic anemia

haemolytic anaemiahemolytic anaemiahemolytic disease
The causes of anemia may be classified as impaired red blood cell (RBC) production, increased RBC destruction (hemolytic anemias), blood loss and fluid overload (hypervolemia).
Hemolytic anemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).

Tachycardia

fast heart rateincreased heart raterapid heart rate
In severe anemia, there may be signs of a hyperdynamic circulation: tachycardia (a fast heart rate), bounding pulse, flow murmurs, and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement).

Aplastic anemia

aplastic anaemiaaplasticacquired aplastic anemia
Aplastic anaemia causes a deficiency of all blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Megaloblastic anemia

megaloblastic anaemiamegaloblastic anaemiasa type of anemia
Megaloblastic anemia is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.

Pure red cell aplasia

Acquired pure red cell aplasiaRed cell aplasiaConstitutional red blood cell aplasia
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) or erythroblastopenia refers to a type of anemia affecting the precursors to red blood cells but not to white blood cells.

Fatigue

exhaustionOverexertiontiredness
When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath, and a poor ability to exercise.
These include blood tests to check for infection or anemia, a urinalysis to look for signs of liver disease or diabetes mellitus, and other tests to check for kidney and liver function, such as a comprehensive metabolic panel.

Folate deficiency

folic acid deficiencyfolatedepletion
A low number of red blood cells (anemia) is a late finding in folate deficiency and folate deficiency anemia is the term given for this medical condition.

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

pernicious anemiapernicious anaemiaanemia, pernicious
Pernicious anemia refers to anemia that results from lack of intrinsic factor.

Iron-deficiency anemia

iron deficiency anemiairon deficiency anaemiairon deficiency
Iron-deficiency anemia affects nearly 1 billion people.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.

Erythropoietin

EPOrecombinant EPOerythropoetin
In the anemia of chronic kidney disease, recombinant erythropoietin or epoetin alfa is recommended to stimulate RBC production, and if iron deficiency and inflammation are also present, concurrent parenteral iron is also recommended.
Common causes of cellular hypoxia resulting in elevated levels of EPO (up to 10 000 mU/mL) include any anemia, and hypoxemia due to chronic lung disease.

Palpitations

palpitationheart palpitationsheart palpitation
The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if pre-existing heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.
In one study reporting the etiology of palpitations, 43% were found to be of cardiac etiology, 31% of psychiatric etiology and approximately 10% were classified as miscellaneous (medication induced, thyrotoxicosis, caffeine, cocaine, anemia, amphetamine, mastocytosis).

Lightheadedness

presyncopelight-headednesslight-headed
When the anemia comes on quickly, symptoms may include confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, and increased thirst.
Other causes are: altitude sickness, low blood sugar, hyperventilation, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, panic attacks, and anemia.