Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetizedanaestheticanesthesiologyanaesthetizedanaesthesiologyanaestheticsanesthetic agentsanesthesiologist
Not to be confused with Paresthesia and Anesthetic.wikipedia
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Anesthetic

anaestheticanestheticsanaesthetics
A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized.
An anesthetic (American English) or anaesthetic (British English; [[American and British English spelling differences#Miscellaneous spelling differences|see spelling differences]]) is a drug used to induce anesthesia - in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotics, and analgesics. hypnosis (a temporary loss of consciousness and with it a loss of memory. In a pharmacological context, the word hypnosis usually has this technical meaning, in contrast to its more familiar lay or psychological meaning of an altered state of consciousness not necessarily caused by drugs—see hypnosis).
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.

Midazolam

VersedBuccal midazolammidazolam hydrochloride
Drugs like midazolam produce amnesia through different pathways by blocking the formation of long-term memories.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

Unconsciousness

unconsciousloss of consciousnessnarcosis
It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness.
Unconsciousness may occur as the result of traumatic brain injury, brain hypoxia (e.g., due to a brain infarction or cardiac arrest), severe poisoning with drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol and other hypnotic or sedative drugs), severe fatigue, anaesthesia, and other causes.

Anesthesiologist assistant

Non-medical healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
An anesthesiologist assistant is an advanced non-physician provider who provides anesthesia under the medical direction of a physician anesthesiologist.

Local anesthesia

regional anesthesialocal anaesthesialocal
Regional and local anesthesia, which block transmission of nerve impulses from a specific part of the body. Depending on the situation, this may be used either on its own (in which case the patient remains conscious), or in combination with general anesthesia or sedation. Drugs can be targeted at peripheral nerves to anesthetize an isolated part of the body only, such as numbing a tooth for dental work or using a nerve block to inhibit sensation in an entire limb. Alternatively, epidural or spinal anesthesia can be performed in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing all incoming sensation from nerves outside the area of the block. Regional anesthesia, for instance, affects analgesia; benzodiazepine-type sedatives (used for sedation, or "twilight anesthesia") favor amnesia; and general anesthetics can affect all of the endpoints.
Local anesthesia, in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the body such as a tooth or an area of skin.

Twilight anesthesia

Twilight
Regional anesthesia, for instance, affects analgesia; benzodiazepine-type sedatives (used for sedation, or "twilight anesthesia") favor amnesia; and general anesthetics can affect all of the endpoints.
Just like regular anesthesia, twilight anesthesia is designed to help a patient feel more comfortable and to minimize pain associated with the procedure being performed and to allow the medical practitioner to practice without interruptions.

Patient safety

safetymedication safetyPatient Safety Leadership
The same minimum standards for patient safety apply regardless of the provider, including continuous clinical and biometric monitoring of tissue oxygenation, perfusion and blood pressure; confirmation of correct placement of airway management devices by auscultation and carbon dioxide detection; use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist; and safe onward transfer of the patient's care following the procedure.
In the United States, the public and the medical specialty of anesthesia were shocked in April 1982 by the ABC television program 20/20 entitled The Deep Sleep.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
muscle relaxation
By 1943, neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants in the practice of anesthesia and surgery.

Specialty (medicine)

medical specialtyspecialtyspecialist
The medical specialty centred around anesthesia is called anesthesiology, and medical doctors who practise it are termed anesthesiologists.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
A surgical team is made up of surgeon, surgeon's assistant, anaesthesia provider, circulating nurse and surgical technologist.

Surgical stress

Choice of surgical method and anesthetic technique aims to reduce risk of complications, shorten time needed for recovery and minimise the surgical stress response. Eventually, the need for blunting of the surgical stress response was identified by Harvey Cushing, who injected local anesthetic prior to hernia repairs.
Measurement of surgical stress is used in anaesthesia, physiology and surgery.

Pseudocholinesterase deficiency

pseudocholinesterase-deficient
The more detailed pre-operative medical history aims to discover genetic disorders (such as malignant hyperthermia or pseudocholinesterase deficiency), habits (tobacco, drug and alcohol use), physical attributes (such as obesity or a difficult airway) and any coexisting diseases (especially cardiac and respiratory diseases) that might impact the anesthetic.
People who have this abnormality may be sensitive to certain anesthetic drugs, including the muscle relaxants succinylcholine and mivacurium as well as other ester local anesthetics.

Airway management

airwaychest thrustsairway maneuvres
The same minimum standards for patient safety apply regardless of the provider, including continuous clinical and biometric monitoring of tissue oxygenation, perfusion and blood pressure; confirmation of correct placement of airway management devices by auscultation and carbon dioxide detection; use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist; and safe onward transfer of the patient's care following the procedure.
Airway management is a primary consideration in the fields of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, anaesthesia, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine, and first aid.

Anaesthetic technician

anesthesia technicianAnesthesia Technician/TechnologistAnesthetic technician
Non-medical healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
Anaesthetic technicians prepare equipment needed for the patient to safely undergo anaesthesia.

Fentanyl

fentanyl citratefentanyl intranasalfentanyl, cocaine
- Glycopyrronium bromide (here under trade name "Robinul"), reducing secretions
Fentanyl (also spelled fentanil) is an opioid used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.

Physicians' assistant (anaesthesia)

physicians' assistants (anaesthesia)
Non-medical healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
In the United Kingdom, a physicians' assistant (anaesthesia), abbreviated to PA(A), is a healthcare worker who provides anaesthesia under the medical direction and supervision of a consultant anaesthetist.

Operating department practitioner

ODPOperating Department Practice
Non-medical healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
ODPs provide care for patients during the anaesthesia (pre-operative), surgical (intra-operative), and recovery (post-operative) phases.

Bispectral index

anesthetic depthBIS monitorcerebral activity
For more invasive surgery, monitoring may also include temperature, urine output, blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, cardiac output, cerebral activity, and neuromuscular function.
Bispectral index (BIS) is one of several technologies used to monitor depth of anesthesia.

Ketamine

Special KCalypsolK
Many drugs can produce a sedative effect including benzodiazepines, propofol, thiopental, ketamine and inhaled general anesthetics.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

ASA physical status classification system

ASA physical statusAmerican Society of Anesthesiologists (physical status class)ASA Class I
Of these factors, the person's health prior to the procedure(stratified by the ASA physical status classification system) has the greatest bearing on the probability of a complication occurring.
Although more complex scoring systems like APACHE II exist, they are time-consuming to calculate, and do not have the same utility for ease of communication between surgeons, anesthesiologists, and insurers as well as dental professionals providing local and general anesthesia.

WHO Surgical Safety Checklist

The same minimum standards for patient safety apply regardless of the provider, including continuous clinical and biometric monitoring of tissue oxygenation, perfusion and blood pressure; confirmation of correct placement of airway management devices by auscultation and carbon dioxide detection; use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist; and safe onward transfer of the patient's care following the procedure.
The checklist essentially identifies three distinct phases of an operation, each corresponding to a specific period in the normal flow of work: Before the induction of anaesthesia, before the incision of the skin, and before the patient leaves the operating facility.

Intravenous regional anesthesia

Bier blockintravenous regional anaesthesiaBier block anaesthesia
Intravenous regional anesthesia (also called a Bier block): dilute local anesthetic is infused to a limb through a vein with a tourniquet placed to prevent the drug from diffusing out of the limb.
Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously and isolated from circulation in a target area.

Harvey Cushing

Dr. Harvey CushingCushingCushing Road
Eventually, the need for blunting of the surgical stress response was identified by Harvey Cushing, who injected local anesthetic prior to hernia repairs.
In Baltimore, he developed the method of operating with local anaesthesia, and his paper on its use in hernia gave him a European reputation.

Hypnosis

hypnotismhypnotisthypnotic
hypnosis (a temporary loss of consciousness and with it a loss of memory. In a pharmacological context, the word hypnosis usually has this technical meaning, in contrast to its more familiar lay or psychological meaning of an altered state of consciousness not necessarily caused by drugs—see hypnosis).
Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; "detachment"; "suggestibility", "ideosensory activity"; "catalepsy"; "ideomotor responsiveness"; "age regression"; "revivification"; "hypermnesia"; "[automatic or suggested] amnesia"; "posthypnotic responses"; "hypnotic analgesia and anesthesia"; "glove anesthesia"; "somnambulism"; "automatic writing"; "time distortion"; "release of inhibitions"; "change in capacity for volitional activity"; "trance logic"; and "effortless imagination".