Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetizedanaestheticanesthesiologyAnaestheticsanaesthetizedanesthetic agentsanaesthesiologyanesthesiologist
Not to be confused with Paresthesia and Anesthetic.wikipedia
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Anesthetic

anaestheticanestheticsanaesthetics
A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized.
An anesthetic (American English) or anaesthetic (British English; [[American and British English spelling differences#Miscellaneous spelling differences|see spelling differences]]) is a drug used to induce anesthesia ⁠— ⁠in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotics, and analgesics.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep), or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.

Midazolam

VersedDormicumMidazolam hydrochloride
Drugs like midazolam produce amnesia through different pathways by blocking the formation of long-term memories. For instance, propofol (injection) might be used to start the anesthetic, fentanyl (injection) used to blunt the stress response, midazolam (injection) given to ensure amnesia and sevoflurane (inhaled) during the procedure to maintain the effects.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

Unconsciousness

unconsciousloss of consciousnessnarcosis
It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness.
Unconsciousness may occur as the result of traumatic brain injury, brain hypoxia (e.g., due to a brain infarction or cardiac arrest), severe poisoning with drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol and other hypnotic or sedative drugs), severe fatigue, anaesthesia, and other causes.

Local anesthesia

regional anesthesialocallocal anaesthesia
Regional anesthesia, for instance, affects analgesia; benzodiazepine-type sedatives (used for sedation, or "twilight anesthesia") favor amnesia; and general anesthetics can affect all of the endpoints.

Twilight anesthesia

Twilight
Regional anesthesia, for instance, affects analgesia; benzodiazepine-type sedatives (used for sedation, or "twilight anesthesia") favor amnesia; and general anesthetics can affect all of the endpoints.
Just like regular anesthesia, twilight anesthesia is designed to help a patient feel more comfortable and to minimize pain associated with the procedure being performed and to allow the medical practitioner to practice without interruptions.

Anesthesiologist assistant

Ancillary healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
In the United States, anesthesiologist assistants - known in full as certified anesthesiologist assistants - are healthcare workers who work under the direction of licensed anesthesiologists to implement anesthesia care plans for a patient undergoing surgery.

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedated
The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotics, and analgesics.
Although sedatives do not relieve pain in themselves, they can be a useful adjunct to analgesics in preparing patients for surgery, and are commonly given to patients before they are anaesthetized, or before other highly uncomfortable and invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, colonoscopy or MRI.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
By 1943, neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants in the practice of anesthesia and surgery.

Patient safety

safetymedication safetyPatient Safety Leadership
The same minimum standards for patient safety apply regardless of the provider, including continuous clinical and biometric monitoring of tissue oxygenation, perfusion and blood pressure; confirmation of correct placement of airway management devices by auscultation and carbon dioxide detection; use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist; and safe onward transfer of the patient's care following the procedure.
In the United States, the public and the medical specialty of anesthesia were shocked in April 1982 by the ABC television program 20/20 entitled The Deep Sleep.

Surgical stress

Choice of surgical method and anesthetic technique aims to reduce risk of complications, shorten time needed for recovery and minimise the surgical stress response. Eventually, the need for blunting of the surgical stress response was identified by Harvey Cushing, who injected local anesthetic prior to hernia repairs.
Measurement of surgical stress is used in anaesthesia, physiology and surgery.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling.

Pseudocholinesterase deficiency

pseudocholinesterase-deficient
The more detailed pre-operative medical history aims to discover genetic disorders (such as malignant hyperthermia or pseudocholinesterase deficiency), habits (tobacco, drug and alcohol use), physical attributes (such as obesity or a difficult airway) and any coexisting diseases (especially cardiac and respiratory diseases) that might impact the anesthetic.
People who have this abnormality may be sensitive to certain anesthetic drugs, including the muscle relaxants succinylcholine and mivacurium as well as other ester local anesthetics.

Anesthetic technician

Anaesthetic techniciananesthesia technicianAnesthesia Technician/Technologist
Ancillary healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
For instance, propofol (injection) might be used to start the anesthetic, fentanyl (injection) used to blunt the stress response, midazolam (injection) given to ensure amnesia and sevoflurane (inhaled) during the procedure to maintain the effects.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.

Airway management

airwaychest thrustsAirway establishment & management
The same minimum standards for patient safety apply regardless of the provider, including continuous clinical and biometric monitoring of tissue oxygenation, perfusion and blood pressure; confirmation of correct placement of airway management devices by auscultation and carbon dioxide detection; use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist; and safe onward transfer of the patient's care following the procedure.
Airway management is a primary consideration in the fields of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, anaesthesia, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine, neonatology, and first aid.

Specialty (medicine)

medical specialtyspecialtyspecialist
The medical specialty centred around anesthesia is called anesthesiology, and medical doctors who practise it are termed anesthesiologists.

Physicians' assistant (anaesthesia)

physicians' assistants (anaesthesia)
Ancillary healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
In the United Kingdom, a physicians' assistant (anaesthesia), abbreviated to PA(A), is a healthcare worker who provides anaesthesia under the medical direction and supervision of a consultant anaesthetist.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
Many drugs can produce a sedative effect including benzodiazepines, propofol, thiopental, ketamine and inhaled general anesthetics.
Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

Bispectral index

BIS monitoranesthetic depthbispectral index (BIS)
For more invasive surgery, monitoring may also include temperature, urine output, blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, cardiac output, cerebral activity, and neuromuscular function.
Bispectral index (BIS) is one of several technologies used to monitor depth of anesthesia.

Operating department practitioner

Operating Department PractitionersODPOperating Department Practice
Ancillary healthcare workers involved in anesthesia provision have varying titles and roles depending on the jurisdiction, and include nurse anesthetists, anesthetic nurses, anesthesiologist assistants, anaesthetic technicians, physicians' assistants (anaesthesia), operating department practitioners and anesthesia technologists.
ODPs provide care for patients during the anaesthesia (pre-operative), surgical (intra-operative), and recovery (post-operative) phases.

Intravenous regional anesthesia

Bier blockintravenous regional anaesthesiaBier block anaesthesia
Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously and isolated from circulation in a target area.

Hypnosis

hypnotismhypnotisthypnotic
Sedation (also referred to as dissociative anesthesia or twilight anesthesia) creates hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, amnesic, anticonvulsant, and centrally produced muscle-relaxing properties.
Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; "detachment"; "suggestibility", "ideosensory activity"; "catalepsy"; "ideomotor responsiveness"; "age regression"; "revivification"; "hypermnesia"; "[automatic or suggested] amnesia"; "posthypnotic responses"; "hypnotic analgesia and anesthesia"; "glove anesthesia"; "somnambulism"; "automatic writing"; "time distortion"; "release of inhibitions"; "change in capacity for volitional activity"; "trance logic"; and "effortless imagination".

Tracheal intubation

endotracheal intubationintubationintubated
The advantage of sedation over a general anesthetic is that it generally does not require support of the airway or breathing (no tracheal intubation or mechanical ventilation) and can have less of an effect on the cardiovascular system which may add to a greater margin of safety in some patients.
By the mid-20th century, the tracheotomy as well as endoscopy and non-surgical tracheal intubation had evolved from rarely employed procedures to becoming essential components of the practices of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, emergency medicine, and laryngology.

Harvey Cushing

Harvey Williams CushingDr. Harvey CushingCushing
Eventually, the need for blunting of the surgical stress response was identified by Harvey Cushing, who injected local anesthetic prior to hernia repairs.
In Baltimore, he developed the method of operating with local anaesthesia, and his paper on its use in hernia gave him a European reputation.