Anesthesiology

anesthesiologistanaesthetistanaesthesiologyanaestheticsanesthetistanaesthesiologistanesthesiologistsanaesthetistsanaesthesiaanaesthesiologists
Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics (see Terminology) is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery.wikipedia
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Specialty (medicine)

medical specialtyspecialtyspecialist
Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics (see Terminology) is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery.
In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

Anesthetic

anaestheticanestheticsanaesthetics
The core element of the specialty is the study and use of anesthesia and anesthetics to safely support a patient's vital functions through the perioperative period.
Many are rarely used outside anesthesiology, but others are used commonly in various fields of healthcare.

Critical emergency medicine

critical
It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, and pain medicine.
In particular, the term is used to describe the role of anaesthesiologists in providing such care.

Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, and pain medicine.
The medical specialty centred around anesthesia is called anesthesiology, and medical doctors who practise it are termed anesthesiologists.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics (see Terminology) is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery. In other countries, intensive care medicine has evolved further to become a separate medical specialty in its own right, or has become a "supra-specialty" which may be practiced by doctors from various base specialties such as anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general medicine, surgery or neurology.
The person is assisted by an anesthesiologist or resident to make a specific surgical position, then sterile drapes are used to cover the surgical site or at least a wide area surrounding the operating field; the drapes are clipped to a pair of poles near the head of the bed to form an "ether screen", which separates the anesthetist/anesthesiologist's working area (unsterile) from the surgical site (sterile).

Anesthesiologist assistant

In the United States, anesthesiologist assistants - known in full as certified anesthesiologist assistants - are healthcare workers who work under the direction of licensed anesthesiologists to implement anesthesia care plans for a patient undergoing surgery.

Pre-hospital emergency medicine

pre-hospitalpre-hospital carepre-hospital settings
In some countries anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, and their role can extend far beyond the traditional role of anesthesia care in the operating room, including fields such as providing pre-hospital emergency medicine, running intensive care units, transporting critically ill patients between facilities, and prehabilitation programs to optimize patients for surgery.
It may be practised by physicians from various backgrounds such as anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine and acute medicine, after they have completed initial training in their base specialty.

Operating theater

operating theatreoperating roomoperating rooms
In some countries anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, and their role can extend far beyond the traditional role of anesthesia care in the operating room, including fields such as providing pre-hospital emergency medicine, running intensive care units, transporting critically ill patients between facilities, and prehabilitation programs to optimize patients for surgery.
Outside the operating room is a dedicated scrubbing area that is used by surgeons, anesthetists, ODPs (operating department practitioners), and nurses prior to surgery.

European Society of Anaesthesiology

The European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA), established in its current form in 2005, is the largest association of physicians specialising in anaesthesiology in Europe.

World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists

The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) is an international federation of independent national professional associations of anaesthesiologists.

Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographymedical ultrasonography
Safe anesthesia requires in-depth knowledge of various invasive and non-invasive organ support techniques that are used to control patients' vital functions while under the effects of anaesthetic drugs; these include advanced airway management, invasive and non-invasive hemodynamic monitors, and diagnostic techniques like ultrasonography and echocardiography.
In anesthesiology, ultrasound is commonly used to guide the placement of needles when placing local anaesthetic solutions near nerves.

Bjørn Aage Ibsen

Bjørn Ibsen
The first intensive care unit was opened by Bjørn Aage Ibsen in Copenhagen in 1953, prompted by a polio epidemic during which many patients required prolonged artificial ventilation.
Bjørn Aage Ibsen (August 30, 1915 – August 7, 2007) was a Danish anesthetist and founder of intensive-care medicine.

Intensive care unit

ICUintensive-care unitintensive care
In some countries anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, and their role can extend far beyond the traditional role of anesthesia care in the operating room, including fields such as providing pre-hospital emergency medicine, running intensive care units, transporting critically ill patients between facilities, and prehabilitation programs to optimize patients for surgery. The first intensive care unit was opened by Bjørn Aage Ibsen in Copenhagen in 1953, prompted by a polio epidemic during which many patients required prolonged artificial ventilation.
In 1950, anesthesiologist Peter Safar established the concept of "Advanced life support", keeping patients sedated and ventilated in an intensive care environment.

Perioperative medicine

post-surgicalperioperative
Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics (see Terminology) is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery.
In the practice of perioperative medicine the surgeon, anesthesiologist, intensivist and medical consultant work in concert.

Emergency medicine

emergency careemergencyemergency treatment
In other countries, intensive care medicine has evolved further to become a separate medical specialty in its own right, or has become a "supra-specialty" which may be practiced by doctors from various base specialties such as anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general medicine, surgery or neurology.
By contrast, in countries following the Franco-German model, the speciality does not exist and emergency medical care is instead provided directly by anesthesiologists (for critical resuscitation), surgeons, specialists in internal medicine, pediatricians, cardiologists or neurologists as appropriate.

General anaesthesia

general anesthesiageneralgeneral anesthetic
Historically anesthesia providers were almost solely utilized during surgery to administer general anesthesia in which a person is placed in a pharmacologic coma.
The optimal combination of drugs for any given patient and procedure is typically selected by an anaesthetist, or another provider such as an operating department practitioner, anaesthetist practitioner, physician assistant or nurse anaesthetist (depending on local practice), in consultation with the patient and the surgeon, dentist, or other practitioner performing the operative procedure.

Local anesthesia

regional anesthesialocallocal anaesthesia
The role of anesthesiologists in ensuring adequate pain relief for patients in the immediate postoperative period, as well as their expertise in regional anesthesia and nerve blocks, has led to the development of pain medicine as a subspecialty in its own right.
Anesthetists sometimes combine both general and local anesthesia techniques.

History of general anesthesia

anesthesiabeginnings of general anesthesia
In the nineteenth century the beginnings of general anesthesia started with the introduction of ether in Boston and chloroform in the United Kingdom to bring about a state of unawareness and unresponsiveness to the pain of surgical insult.
Standardized training programs for anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists emerged during this period.

Nurse anesthetist

Nurse Anesthesianurse anesthetistscertified registered nurse anesthetist
In states requiring supervision, CRNA's have liability separate from any supervising practitioner and are able to administer anesthesia independently of anesthesiologists.

Pain management

pain medicinepain reliefpain control
It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, and pain medicine. The role of anesthesiologists in ensuring adequate pain relief for patients in the immediate postoperative period, as well as their expertise in regional anesthesia and nerve blocks, has led to the development of pain medicine as a subspecialty in its own right.
Pain physicians are often fellowship-trained board-certified anesthesiologists, neurologists, physiatrists or psychiatrists.

Mechanical ventilation

mechanical ventilatorassisted ventilationRespiratory monitoring
This may involve a machine called a ventilator, or the breathing may be assisted manually by a suitably qualified professional, such as an anesthesiologist, respiratory therapist, or paramedic, by compressing a bag valve mask device.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
In other countries, intensive care medicine has evolved further to become a separate medical specialty in its own right, or has become a "supra-specialty" which may be practiced by doctors from various base specialties such as anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general medicine, surgery or neurology.
Sleep medicine is a subspecialty field in the US under several medical specialties including anesthesiology, internal medicine, family medicine, and neurology.

Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists

FANZCAanaesthesiology in AustraliaHonorary Fellow of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthestists
In Australia and New Zealand, training is supervised by the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, while anaesthetists are represented by the Australian Society of Anaesthetists and the New Zealand Society of Anaesthetists.
The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) is responsible for examining and qualifying anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand.

Airway management

airwaychest thrustsAirway establishment & management
Safe anesthesia requires in-depth knowledge of various invasive and non-invasive organ support techniques that are used to control patients' vital functions while under the effects of anaesthetic drugs; these include advanced airway management, invasive and non-invasive hemodynamic monitors, and diagnostic techniques like ultrasonography and echocardiography.

Royal College of Anaesthetists

FFARCSFRCACollege of Anaesthetists
In England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, training is supervised by the Royal College of Anaesthetists.
The Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCoA) is the professional body responsible for the specialty of anaesthesia throughout the United Kingdom.