Aneurysm

aneurysmsaneurismruptured aneurysmaneurismsarterial aneurysmaneuristicaneurymsaneurysmal dilationblood vessel rupturedilate
An aneurysm is an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon, caused by a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall.wikipedia
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Aortic aneurysm

aortic aneurismaortic aneurysmsaneurysm
Although they may occur in any blood vessel, particularly lethal examples include aneurysms of the Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta, and abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Most AAA are true aneurysms that involve all three layers (tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia).

Pseudoaneurysm

aneurysm, falsefalse aneurysmfalse lumen
A false aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm, is a collection of blood leaking completely out of an artery or vein, but confined next to the vessel by the surrounding tissue.
It may be pulsatile and can resemble a true aneurysm.

Coronary catheterization

coronary angiographycoronary angiogramcardiac catheterization
Pseudoaneurysms can be caused by trauma that punctures the artery, such as knife and bullet wounds, as a result of percutaneous surgical procedures such as coronary angiography or arterial grafting, or use of an artery for injection.
Specifically, coronary catheterization is a visually interpreted test performed to recognize occlusion, stenosis, restenosis, thrombosis or aneurysmal enlargement of the coronary artery lumens; heart chamber size; heart muscle contraction performance; and some aspects of heart valve function.

Charcot–Bouchard aneurysm

microaneurysmmicroaneurysms
The brain, including cerebral aneurysms, berry aneurysms, and Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms.
Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms (also known as miliary aneurysms or microaneurysms) are aneurysms of the brain vasculature which occur in small blood vessels (less than 300 micrometre diameter).

Intracranial aneurysm

brain aneurysmcerebral aneurysmaneurysm
The brain, including cerebral aneurysms, berry aneurysms, and Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms. Berry aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery of the circle of Willis, associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher risk of rupture.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
True aneurysms include atherosclerotic, syphilitic, and congenital aneurysms, as well as ventricular aneurysms that follow transmural myocardial infarctions (aneurysms that involve all layers of the attenuated wall of the heart are also considered true aneurysms).
If the enlargement is beyond proportion to the atheroma thickness, then an aneurysm is created.

Embolism

emboliemboluscerebral embolism
Aneurysms can also be a nidus (starting point) for clot formation (thrombosis) and embolization.
Some other risk factors are poor ejection fraction (5%), size of infarct, and the presence of AF. In the first three months after infarction, left-ventricle aneurysms have a 10% risk of emboli forming.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

abdominal aneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmsabdominal aneurism
Although they may occur in any blood vessel, particularly lethal examples include aneurysms of the Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta, and abdominal aortic aneurysms.
The first historical records about AAA are from Ancient Rome in the 2nd century AD, when Greek surgeon Antyllus tried to treat the AAA with proximal and distal ligature, central incision and removal of thrombotic material from the aneurysm.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney diseaseADPKD
Berry aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery of the circle of Willis, associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
It is also the most common of the inherited cystic kidney diseases — a group of disorders with related but distinct pathogenesis, characterized by the development of renal cysts and various extrarenal manifestations, which in case of ADPKD include cysts in other organs, such as the liver, seminal vesicles, pancreas, and arachnoid membrane, as well as other abnormalities, such as intracranial aneurysms and dolichoectasias, aortic root dilatation and aneurysms, mitral valve prolapse, and abdominal wall hernias.

Rasmussen's aneurysm

Tuberculosis, causing Rasmussen's aneurysms
Rasmussen's aneurysm is a pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with a cavitary lung lesion.

Mycotic aneurysm

Infection. A mycotic aneurysm is an aneurysm that results from an infectious process that involves the arterial wall.
An infected aneurysm is an aneurysm arising from bacterial infection of the arterial wall.

Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

aortic root dilatationaneurysm of the sinus of Valsalvadilation of the valve annulus
The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aneurysms following cardiac surgery.
Aneurysm of the aortic sinus, also known as the sinus of Valsalva, is comparatively rare.

Computed tomography angiography

CT angiographyCTcomputed tomographic angiography
Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is an alternative to traditional angiography and can be performed without the need for arterial catheterization.
Using contrast injected into the blood vessels, images are created to look for blockages, aneurysms (dilations of walls), dissections (tearing of walls), and stenosis (narrowing of vessel).

Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographysonogram
Abdominal aortic aneurysm involves a regional dilation of the aorta and is diagnosed using ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging.
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial color Doppler (TCCD), which measure the velocity of blood flow through the brain's blood vessels transcranially (through the cranium). They are used as tests to help diagnose emboli, stenosis, vasospasm from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding from a ruptured aneurysm), and other problems.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRImagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)magnetic resonance
Abdominal aortic aneurysm involves a regional dilation of the aorta and is diagnosed using ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) generates pictures of the arteries to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing) or aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture).

Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm

cystic medial degenerationcystic medial necrosis
Familial thoracic aortic aneurysms
In the aorta, this can result in the formation of a fusiform aneurysm.

Flow diverter

flow diversion
Flow diverter can be used but not without complications sometimes.
A flow diverter is an endovascular prosthesis used to treat intracranial aneurysms.

Clipping (medicine)

clippingsurgical clipping
Surgical clipping was introduced by Walter Dandy of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1937.
Clipping is a surgical procedure performed to treat an aneurysm.

Common iliac artery

common iliac arteriescommon iliaciliac
The common iliac artery is classified as:

Anterior communicating artery

anterioranterior communicating arteries
Berry aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery of the circle of Willis, associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery are the most common circle of Willis aneurysm and can cause visual field defects such as bitemporal heteronymous hemianopsia (due to compression of the optic chiasm), psychopathology and frontal lobe pathology.

Vasa vasorum

blood vessels supplying the artery itselfsmall blood vesselsvasa-vasorum
The pressure of blood within the expanding aneurysm may also injure the blood vessels supplying the artery itself, further weakening the vessel wall.
In the human descending aorta, vasa vasorum cease to supply the arterial tunica media with oxygenated blood at the level of the renal arteries. Thus, below this point, the aorta is dependent on diffusion for its metabolic needs, and is necessarily markedly thinner. This leads to an increased likelihood of aortic aneurysm at this location, especially in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Other species, such as dogs, do have vasa vasorum below their renal vasculature, and aneurysms at this site are substantially less likely. Cerebral blood vessels are devoid of vasa vasorum; however, these vessels have rete vasorum, which have similar function to vasa vasorum.

Lysyl oxidase

protein-lysine 6-oxidaseLOXlysyl-oxidase
Copper Deficiency. A minority of aneurysms are caused by copper deficiency, which results in a decreased activity of the lysyl oxidase enzyme, affecting elastin, a key component in vessel walls Copper deficiency results in vessel wall thinning, and thus has been noted as a cause of death in copper-deficient humans, chickens and turkeys
This resulted in lathyrism, characterized by poor bone formation and strength, hyperextensible skin, weak ligaments, and increased occurrence of aortic aneurysms.

Walter Dandy

DandyWalter Edward Dandy
Surgical clipping was introduced by Walter Dandy of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1937.
Dandy is credited with numerous neurosurgical discoveries and innovations, including the description of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, the invention of air ventriculography and pneumoencephalography, the description of brain endoscopy, the establishment of the first intensive care unit (Fox 1984, p. 82), and the first clipping of an intracranial aneurysm, which marked the birth of cerebrovascular neurosurgery.

John Olerud

John Olerud, suffered an aneurysm in 1989 and forced to wear batting helmet on field all of his career since then
He was known for wearing a batting helmet in the field as a precaution, since he had suffered a brain aneurysm while playing in college.

David Cone

Cone
David Cone, who suffered from an aneurysm and missed most of the 1996 baseball season
Cone was 4–1 with a 2.02 ERA when he was diagnosed with an aneurysm in his arm in 1996 and went on the disabled list for the majority of the year.