A report on Angina

Illustration depicting angina
Illustration depicting angina
Diagram of discomfort caused by coronary artery disease. Pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of the chest. Can also feel discomfort in the neck, jaw, shoulders, back or arms.

Chest pain or pressure, a symptom of coronary heart disease, usually due to insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle .

- Angina
Illustration depicting angina

42 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.

Myocardial infarction

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A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.
Cross section showing anterior left ventricle wall infarction
Diagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).
A 12-lead ECG showing an inferior STEMI due to reduced perfusion through the right coronary artery. Elevation of the ST segment can be seen in leads II, III and aVF.
ECG : AMI with ST elevation in V2-4
Inserting a stent to widen the artery.

The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw.

A man with congestive heart failure and marked jugular venous distension. External jugular vein marked by an arrow.

Heart failure

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Set of manifestations caused by the failure of the heart's function as a pump supporting the blood flow through the body.

Set of manifestations caused by the failure of the heart's function as a pump supporting the blood flow through the body.

A man with congestive heart failure and marked jugular venous distension. External jugular vein marked by an arrow.
Signs and symptoms of severe heart failure
Severe peripheral pitting edema
Kerley B lines in acute cardiac decompensation. The short, horizontal lines can be found everywhere in the right lung.
Model of a normal heart (left); and a weakened heart, with over-stretched muscle and dilation of left ventricle (right); both during diastole
Chest radiograph of a lung with distinct Kerley B lines, as well as an enlarged heart (as shown by an increased cardiothoracic ratio, cephalization of pulmonary veins, and minor pleural effusion as seen for example in the right horizontal fissure. Yet, no obvious lung edema is seen. Overall, this indicates intermediate severity (stage II) heart failure.
Siderophages (one indicated by white arrow) and pulmonary congestion, indicating left congestive heart failure
Ultrasound showing severe systolic heart failure
Congestive heart failure with small bilateral effusions
Kerley B lines

Chest pain, including angina, does not typically occur due to heart failure.

Illustration depicting atherosclerosis in a coronary artery

Coronary artery disease

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial ischemia, or simply heart disease, involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build-up of atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries of the heart.

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial ischemia, or simply heart disease, involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle due to build-up of atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries of the heart.

Illustration depicting atherosclerosis in a coronary artery
Clogged artery
Micrograph of a coronary artery with the most common form of coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis) and marked luminal narrowing. Masson's trichrome.
Illustration depicting coronary artery disease
Coronary angiogram of a man
Coronary angiogram of a woman
Deaths due to ischaemic heart disease per million persons in 2012
Disability-adjusted life year for ischaemic heart disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. 
no data
<350
350–700
700–1,050
1,050–1,400
1,400–1,750
1,750–2,100
2,100–2,450
2,450–2,800
2,800–3,150
3,150–3,500
3,500–4,000
>4,000

Types include stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

The progression of atherosclerosis (narrowing exaggerated)

Atherosclerosis

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Pattern of the disease arteriosclerosis in which the wall of the artery develops abnormalities, called lesions.

Pattern of the disease arteriosclerosis in which the wall of the artery develops abnormalities, called lesions.

The progression of atherosclerosis (narrowing exaggerated)
Atherosclerosis and lipoproteins
Micrograph of an artery that supplies the heart showing significant atherosclerosis and marked luminal narrowing. Tissue has been stained using Masson's trichrome.
Severe atherosclerosis of the aorta. Autopsy specimen.
Progression of atherosclerosis to late complications.
CT image of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta. Woman of 70 years old with hypertension and dyslipidemia.
Microphotography of arterial wall with calcified (violet color) atherosclerotic plaque (hematoxylin and eosin stain)
Doppler ultrasound of right internal carotid artery with calcified and non-calcified plaques showing less than 70% stenosis

Marked narrowing in the coronary arteries, which are responsible for bringing oxygenated blood to the heart, can produce symptoms such as chest pain of angina and shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness or light-headedness, breathlessness or palpitations.

Cardiac muscle

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One of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.

One of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.

3D rendering showing thick myocardium within the heart wall.
The swirling musculature of the heart ensures effective pumping of blood.
Cardiac muscle
Illustration of a cardiac muscle cell.
Intercalated discs are part of the cardiac muscle cell sarcolemma and they contain gap junctions and desmosomes.
Dog cardiac muscle (400X)

These include ischemic conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle such as angina, and myocardial infarction.

Potential location of pain from a heart attack

Chest pain

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Pain or discomfort in the chest, typically the front of the chest.

Pain or discomfort in the chest, typically the front of the chest.

Potential location of pain from a heart attack
A blockage of coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common cause of chest pain in adults

Pain due to insufficient blood flow to the heart is also called angina pectoris.

Illustration depicting angina

Variant angina

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Illustration depicting angina
Prinzmetal angina

Variant angina, and less commonly Prinzmetal angina, vasospastic angina, angina inversa, coronary vessel spasm, or coronary artery vasospasm, is a syndrome typically consisting of angina (cardiac chest pain) in contrast to stable angina which is generally triggered by exertion or intense exercise, commonly occurs in individuals at rest or even asleep and is caused by vasospasm, a narrowing of the coronary arteries due to contraction of the heart's smooth muscle tissue in the vessel walls.

Coronary arteries (labeled in red text) and other major landmarks (in blue text)

Coronary arteries

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The coronary arteries are the arterial blood vessels of coronary circulation, which transport oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.

The coronary arteries are the arterial blood vessels of coronary circulation, which transport oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.

Coronary arteries (labeled in red text) and other major landmarks (in blue text)
atherosclerosis
heart attack

Therefore, any disorder or disease of the coronary arteries can have a serious impact on health, possibly leading to angina, a heart attack, and even death.

Vascular ischemia of the toes with characteristic cyanosis

Ischemia

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Restriction in blood supply to any tissues, muscle group, or organ of the body, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism .

Restriction in blood supply to any tissues, muscle group, or organ of the body, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism .

Vascular ischemia of the toes with characteristic cyanosis
Native records of contractile activity of the left ventricle of isolated rat heart perfused under Langendorff technique. Curve A - contractile function of the heart is greatly depressed after ischemia-reperfusion. Curve B - a set of short ischemic episodes (ischemic preconditioning) before prolonged ischemia provides functional recovery of contractile activity of the heart at reperfusion.

Cardiac ischemia may be asymptomatic or may cause chest pain, known as angina pectoris.

Three different forms of nitroglycerin: intravenous, sublingual spray, and the nitroglycerin patch.

Nitroglycerin (medication)

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Three different forms of nitroglycerin: intravenous, sublingual spray, and the nitroglycerin patch.

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, anal fissures, painful periods, and to treat and prevent chest pain caused by decreased blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to the recreational use of cocaine.