Angina

angina pectorischest painstable anginaanginalchest pain from not enough blood flow to the heartchest painsheart-related chest painstenocardiaCoronary artery spasmheart related chest pain
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.wikipedia
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Chest pain

chestchest painschest tightness
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Cardiac chest pain is called angina pectoris.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Other causes include anemia, abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure.
Chest pain, including angina, does not typically occur due to heart failure.

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Other causes include anemia, abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure.
The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if pre-existing heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Cardiac ischemia may be asymptomatic or may cause chest pain, known as angina pectoris.

Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris

Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classificationgrading by classes
People with an average age of 62 years, who have moderate to severe degrees of angina (grading by classes II, III, and IV) have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 92%.
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris (sometimes referred to as the CCS Angina Grading Scale or the CCS Functional Classification of Angina) is a classification system used to grade the severity of exertional angina.

Unstable angina

pre-infarct anginaunstableunstable angina pectoris
Unstable angina (UA) (also "crescendo angina"; this is a form of acute coronary syndrome) is defined as angina pectoris that changes or worsens.
Unstable angina (UA) is a type of angina pectoris that is irregular.

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesacute coronary syndrome (ACS)cardiac dysfunction
Unstable angina (UA) (also "crescendo angina"; this is a form of acute coronary syndrome) is defined as angina pectoris that changes or worsens. Worsening angina attacks, sudden-onset angina at rest, and angina lasting more than 15 minutes are symptoms of unstable angina (usually grouped with similar conditions as the acute coronary syndrome).
ACS should be distinguished from stable angina, which develops during physical activity or stress and resolves at rest.

Vasospasm

vascular spasmvasospasm, intracranialvasospastic
Angina is usually due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries. Some people with chest pain have normal or minimal narrowing of heart arteries; in these patients, vasospasm is a more likely cause for the pain, sometimes in the context of Prinzmetal's angina and syndrome X.
Ischemia in the heart due to prolonged coronary vasospasm can lead to angina, myocardial infarction and even death.

Nitroglycerin

nitroglycerineglyceryl trinitratenitro-glycerine
A typical presentation of stable angina is that of chest discomfort and associated symptoms precipitated by some activity (running, walking, etc.) with minimal or non-existent symptoms at rest or after administration of sublingual nitroglycerin.
In medicine for over 130 years, nitroglycerin has been used as a potent vasodilator (dilation of the vascular system) to treat heart conditions, such as angina pectoris and chronic heart failure.

Referred pain

referredfeltpain
This is explained by the concept of referred pain, and is due to the fact that the spinal level that receives visceral sensation from the heart simultaneously receives cutaneous sensation from parts of the skin specified by that spinal nerve's dermatome, without an ability to discriminate the two.
An example is the case of angina pectoris brought on by a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where pain is often felt in the neck, shoulders, and back rather than in the thorax (chest), the site of the injury.

Variant angina

Prinzmetal Anginaangina pectoris, variantvasospastic angina
A variant form of angina—Prinzmetal's angina—occurs in patients with normal coronary arteries or insignificant atherosclerosis. Some people with chest pain have normal or minimal narrowing of heart arteries; in these patients, vasospasm is a more likely cause for the pain, sometimes in the context of Prinzmetal's angina and syndrome X.
Variant angina, often termed Prinzmetal's angina, Prinzmetal angina, and less commonly vasospastic angina, angina inversa, coronary vessel spasm, or coronary artery vasospasm, is a syndrome typically consisting of angina (cardiac chest pain) that unlike classical angina, which is triggered by exertion or exercise, commonly occurs in individuals at rest or even asleep.

Coronary circulation

coronary arteriescoronarycoronary artery
Angina is usually due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries.
Brief ischemia is associated with intense chest pain, known as angina.

Precordial catch syndrome

Chest pain lasting only a few seconds is normally not angina (such as precordial catch syndrome).
Other conditions that may produce similar symptoms include angina, pericarditis, pleurisy, and chest trauma.

Microvascular angina

syndrome Xcardiac syndrome X
Some people with chest pain have normal or minimal narrowing of heart arteries; in these patients, vasospasm is a more likely cause for the pain, sometimes in the context of Prinzmetal's angina and syndrome X.
Cardiac syndrome X is a historic term for microvascular angina, angina (chest pain) with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
The main mechanism of coronary artery obstruction is an atherosclerosis as part of coronary artery disease.
If this is the myocardium (heart muscle) angina (cardiac chest pain) or myocardial infarction (heart attack) develops.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
There is a weak relationship between severity of pain and degree of oxygen deprivation in the heart muscle (i.e., there can be severe pain with little or no risk of a myocardial infarction (heart attack) and a heart attack can occur without pain).
In addition to myocardial infarction, other causes include angina, insufficient blood supply (ischemia) to the heart muscles without evidence of cell death, gastroesophageal reflux disease; pulmonary embolism, tumors of the lungs, pneumonia, rib fracture, costochondritis, heart failure and other musculoskeletal injuries.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
Major risk factors for angina include cigarette smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle, and family history of premature heart disease.
Insufficient blood supply to the heart may cause chest pain, and ischemia of the eye may manifest as transient visual loss in one eye.

Nitroglycerin (drug)

nitroglyceringlyceryl trinitratenitroglycerine
The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin.
Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.

Atheroma

atherosclerotic plaqueplaqueatheromatous plaque
In stable angina, the developing atheroma is protected with a fibrous cap.
Yet despite these medical advances, with success in reducing the symptoms of angina and reduced blood flow, atheroma rupture events remain the major problem and still sometimes result in sudden disability and death despite even the most rapid, massive and skilled medical and surgical intervention available anywhere today.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathyAsymmetric septal hypertrophyHCM
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
The symptoms and signs of HCM include shortness of breath due to stiffening and decreased blood filling of the ventricles, exertional chest pain (sometimes known as angina) due to reduced blood flow to the coronary arteries, uncomfortable awareness of the heart beat (palpitations), as well as disruption of the electrical system running through the abnormal heart muscle, lightheadedness, weakness, fainting and sudden cardiac death.

Calcium channel blocker

calcium channel blockerscalcium antagonistcalcium blocker
Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers act to decrease the heart's workload, and thus its requirement for oxygen. Calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine (Adalat) and amlodipine), isosorbide mononitrate and nicorandil are vasodilators commonly used in chronic stable angina.
Calcium channel blockers are also frequently used to alter heart rate, to prevent cerebral vasospasm, and to reduce chest pain caused by angina pectoris.

Beta blocker

beta blockersbeta-blockersbeta-blocker
Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers act to decrease the heart's workload, and thus its requirement for oxygen.
In 1964, James Black synthesized the first clinically significant beta blockers—propranolol and pronethalol; it revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris and is considered by many to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.

Nifedipine

Adalat
Calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine (Adalat) and amlodipine), isosorbide mononitrate and nicorandil are vasodilators commonly used in chronic stable angina.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand name Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.

Sildenafil

Viagrasildenafil citrateblue pill
Nitroglycerin should not be given if certain inhibitors such as sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil have been taken within the previous 12 hours as the combination of the two could cause a serious drop in blood pressure.
Pfizer originally discovered the medication in 1989 while looking for a treatment for heart related chest pain.