Angiography

angiogramarteriographyangiographicarteriogramangiogramscineangiographyangiographiesAngiography Labangiography procedureAngiography/Venography
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Cerebral angiography

angiographybrainCerebral angiogram
The technique was first developed in 1927 by the Portuguese physician and neurologist Egas Moniz at the University of Lisbon to provide contrasted x-ray cerebral angiography in order to diagnose several kinds of nervous diseases, such as tumors, artery disease and arteriovenous malformations.
Cerebral angiography is a form of angiography which provides images of blood vessels in and around the brain, thereby allowing detection of abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms.

Radiocontrast agent

radiocontrastcontrastcontrast agent
This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy.
Angiography (arterial investigations)

Radionuclide angiography

MUGACardiac blood pool imagingmulti gated acquisition scan
The term angiography has been applied to radionuclide angiography and newer vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography.
The advantage of a MUGA scan over an echocardiogram or an angiogram is its accuracy.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.
Several imaging methods can be used to assess the anatomy and function of the heart, including ultrasound (echocardiography), angiography, CT scans, MRI and PET.

Computed tomography angiography

CT angiographyCTcomputed tomographic angiography
The term angiography has been applied to radionuclide angiography and newer vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography.
Today, many patients can undergo CTA in place of a conventional catheter angiogram, a minor procedure during which a catheter is passed through the blood vessels all the way to the heart, however CCTA has not fully replaced this procedure.

X-ray

x-rayssoft x-rayx rays
This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy. Using a system of guide wires and catheters, a type of contrast agent (which shows up by absorbing the X-rays), is added to the blood to make it visible on the x-ray images.
To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest.

Fluoroscopy

fluoroscopefluoroscopiccineradiography
This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy.
Flat panel detectors are considerably more expensive to purchase and repair than image intensifiers, so their uptake is primarily in specialties that require high-speed imaging, e.g., vascular imaging and cardiac catheterization.

Catheter

catheterscatheterizationindwelling catheter
Using a system of guide wires and catheters, a type of contrast agent (which shows up by absorbing the X-rays), is added to the blood to make it visible on the x-ray images.
angioplasty, angiography, balloon septostomy, balloon sinuplasty, cardiac electrophysiology testing, catheter ablation. Often the Seldinger technique is used.

Microangiography

Microangiography is commonly used to visualize tiny blood vessels.
Microangiography is a type of angiography that consists of the radiography of small blood or lymphatic vessels of an organ.

Seldinger technique

introducer sheath
Using a system of guide wires and catheters, a type of contrast agent (which shows up by absorbing the X-rays), is added to the blood to make it visible on the x-ray images. With the introduction of the Seldinger technique in 1953, the procedure became markedly safer as no sharp introductory devices needed to remain inside the vascular lumen.
The Seldinger technique is used for angiography, insertion of chest drains and central venous catheters, insertion of PEG tubes using the push technique, insertion of the leads for an artificial pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and numerous other interventional medical procedures.

Atheroma

atherosclerotic plaqueplaqueatheromatous plaque
The presence or absence of atherosclerosis or atheroma within the walls of the arteries cannot be clearly determined.
It is plaque ruptures, producing debris and clots which obstruct blood flow downstream, sometimes also locally (as seen on angiograms), which reduce/stop blood flow.

Fluorescein angiography

fluorescent angiographyFluoresceinangiography
Fluorescein angiography is a medical procedure in which a fluorescent dye is injected into the bloodstream.
Sodium fluorescein is added into the systemic circulation, the retina is illuminated with blue light at a wavelength of 490 nanometers, and an angiogram is obtained by photographing the fluorescent green light that is emitted by the dye.

Digital subtraction angiography

DSAAngiographyangiography, digital subtraction
For all structures except the heart, the images are usually taken using a technique called digital subtraction angiography or DSA. Major complications in cerebral angiography such as in digital subtraction angiography or contrast MRI are also rare but include stroke, an allergic reaction to the anaesthetic other medication or the contrast medium, blockage or damage to one of the access veins in the leg, or thrombosis and embolism formation.
In traditional angiography, images are acquired by exposing an area of interest with time-controlled x-rays while injecting contrast medium into the blood vessels.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRImagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)magnetic resonance
To detect coronary artery disease, a CT scan is more satisfactory than an MRI scan.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) generates pictures of the arteries to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing) or aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture).

Interventional radiology

interventional radiologistinterventional radiologistsendovascular
Images in this case are usually taken at 2–3 frames per second, which allows the interventional radiologist to evaluate the flow of the blood through a vessel or vessels.
Angiography: Imaging the blood vessels to look for abnormalities with the use of various contrast media, including iodinated contrast, gadolinium based agents, and CO2 gas.

Femoral artery

femoralsuperficial femoral arteryfemoral arteries
Depending on the type of angiogram, access to the blood vessels is gained most commonly through the femoral artery, to look at the left side of the heart and at the arterial system; or the jugular or femoral vein, to look at the right side of the heart and at the venous system.
The genicular anastomosis has not been demonstrated even with modern imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography or angiography.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
The presence or absence of atherosclerosis or atheroma within the walls of the arteries cannot be clearly determined.
Areas of severe narrowing, stenosis, detectable by angiography, and to a lesser extent "stress testing" have long been the focus of human diagnostic techniques for cardiovascular disease, in general.

Peripheral artery disease

peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral arterial diseasearterial insufficiency
Peripheral artery occlusive disease
Duplex ultrasonography and angiography may also be used.

Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
Major complications in cerebral angiography such as in digital subtraction angiography or contrast MRI are also rare but include stroke, an allergic reaction to the anaesthetic other medication or the contrast medium, blockage or damage to one of the access veins in the leg, or thrombosis and embolism formation.
Stroke is diagnosed through several techniques: a neurological examination (such as the NIHSS), CT scans (most often without contrast enhancements) or MRI scans, Doppler ultrasound, and arteriography.

Intravascular ultrasound

IVUSIntravascular ultrasound systemsultrasound
Intravascular ultrasound
It can be especially useful in situations in which angiographic imaging is considered unreliable; such as for the lumen of ostial lesions or where angiographic images do not visualize lumen segments adequately, such as regions with multiple overlapping arterial segments.

Echocardiography

echocardiogramechocardiographicultrasound of the heart
Echocardiogram
Angiogram

Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.

Lumen (anatomy)

lumenluminallumina
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers. The presence or absence of atherosclerosis or atheroma within the walls of the arteries cannot be clearly determined. Depending on the type of angiogram, access to the blood vessels is gained most commonly through the femoral artery, to look at the left side of the heart and at the arterial system; or the jugular or femoral vein, to look at the right side of the heart and at the venous system.

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.