Angioplasty

balloon angioplastyangioplastiespercutaneous transluminal angioplastycoronary angioplastyangioplasty, laserBalloon dilationmedical treatmentangioplasty and stentingangioplasty surgeryangioplasty treatment
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.wikipedia
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Minimally invasive procedure

minimally invasiveminimally invasive surgerynon-invasive
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
Minimally invasive procedures were pioneered by interventional radiologists who had first introduced angioplasty and the catheter-delivered stent.

Balloon catheter

angioplasty, balloonBalloonsballoon
A deflated balloon attached to a catheter (a balloon catheter) is passed over a guide-wire into the narrowed vessel and then inflated to a fixed size.
Balloon catheters are also utilized in the deployment of stents during angioplasty.

Vascular surgery

vascular surgeonvascularEndovascular surgery
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

Stent

stentsstentingstent graft
A stent may be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. Often, peripheral angioplasty is used in conjunction with guide wire, peripheral stenting and an atherectomy.

Percutaneous coronary intervention

coronary angioplastyPCIpercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
A percutaneous coronary intervention is first performed.
After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open.

Percutaneous

percutaneously percutaneous stimulationPercutaneous endovascular
Angioplasty has come to include all manner of vascular interventions that are typically performed percutaneously.
The percutaneous approach is commonly used in vascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

Atherectomy

rotablator
Often, peripheral angioplasty is used in conjunction with guide wire, peripheral stenting and an atherectomy.
It is an alternative to angioplasty for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, but the studies that exist are not adequate to determine if it is superior to angioplasty.

Peripheral artery disease

peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral arterial diseasePeripheral artery occlusive disease
It is most commonly done to treat atherosclerotic narrowings of the abdomen, leg and renal arteries caused by peripheral artery disease.
Procedures used to treat the disease include bypass grafting, angioplasty, and atherectomy.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
A coronary angioplasty is a therapeutic procedure to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease.
If part of the heart seems to receive an insufficient blood supply, coronary angiography may be used to identify stenosis of the coronary arteries and suitability for angioplasty or bypass surgery.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. It is most commonly done to treat atherosclerotic narrowings of the abdomen, leg and renal arteries caused by peripheral artery disease.
Vascular bypass surgery can re-establish flow around the diseased segment of artery, and angioplasty with or without stenting can reopen narrowed arteries and improve bloodflow.

Carotid endarterectomy

carotid endarterectomiesendarterectomy, carotidsurgery to open up the arteries to the brain
Carotid artery stenosis is treated with angioplasty in a procedure called carotid stenting for patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.
A newer procedure, endovascular angioplasty and stenting, threads a catheter up from the groin, around the aortic arch, and up the carotid artery.

Catheter

catheterscatheterizationindwelling catheter
Angioplasty requires an access vessel, typically the femoral or radial artery or femoral vein, to permit access to the vascular system for the wires and catheters used.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Relative to surgery, angioplasty is a lower-risk option for the treatment of the conditions for which it is used, but there are unique and potentially dangerous risks and complications associated with angioplasty:
Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of a sterile environment, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling.

Restenosis

coronary restenosisre-stenosisrestenotic
Angioplasty may also provide a less durable treatment for atherosclerosis and be more prone to restenosis relative to vascular bypass or coronary artery bypass grafting.
Procedures frequently used to treat the vascular damage from atherosclerosis and related narrowing and renarrowing (restenosis) of blood vessels include vascular surgery, cardiac surgery, and angioplasty.

Vascular closure device

hemostatic plug
At the conclusion of the procedure, the balloons, wires and catheters are removed and the vessel puncture site is treated either with direct pressure or a vascular closure device.
Cardiovascular procedures requiring catheterization include diagnostic procedures that help diagnose diseased blood vessels and interventional procedures such as angioplasty, the placement of a stent and coronary thrombectomy.

Vascular bypass

vascular graftHuman umbilical vein graftbypass surgery
Angioplasty may also provide a less durable treatment for atherosclerosis and be more prone to restenosis relative to vascular bypass or coronary artery bypass grafting. A small vessel diameter, the presence of posterior calcification, occlusion, hematoma, or a bypass origin may all make access to the vascular system too difficult.
If a patient is deemed to be too high-risk to undergo a bypass, he or she may be a candidate for angioplasty or stenting of the relevant vessel.

Interventional radiology

interventional radiologistinterventional radiologistsendovascular
Angioplasty was first described by the US interventional radiologist Charles Dotter in 1964.

Renal artery stenosis

renal artery obstructionAtherosclerotic renal artery stenosisbi-lateral renal artery stenosis
Renal artery stenosis can lead to hypertension and loss of renal function.
The most commonly used procedure is a minimally-invasive angioplasty with or without stenting.

Andreas Gruentzig

Andreas GrüntzigAndreas Roland Grüntzig
The first percutaneous coronary angioplasty on an awake patient was performed in Zurich by the German cardiologist Andreas Gruentzig on September 16, 1977.
He is known for being the first to develop successful balloon angioplasty for expanding lumens of narrowed arteries.

Seldinger technique

introducer sheath
An introducer sheath is inserted into the blood vessel via the Seldinger technique.
An introducer sheath can be used to introduce catheters or other devices to perform endoluminal (inside the hollow organ) procedures, such as angioplasty.

Charles Theodore Dotter

Charles DotterDotter
Angioplasty was first described by the US interventional radiologist Charles Dotter in 1964.
Dotter, together with his trainee Dr Melvin P. Judkins, described angioplasty in 1964.

Ingemar Lundquist

Ingemar Henry Lundquist
Ingemar Henry Lundquist invented the over-the-wire balloon catheter that is now used in the majority of angioplasty procedures in the world.
His inventions included over the wire balloon angioplasty, T.U.N.A., and somnoplasty.

Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgery
Angioplasty may also provide a less durable treatment for atherosclerosis and be more prone to restenosis relative to vascular bypass or coronary artery bypass grafting.

Medical procedure

procedureproceduresmedical
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

Stenosis

stricturesstricturenarrowing
A deflated balloon attached to a catheter (a balloon catheter) is passed over a guide-wire into the narrowed vessel and then inflated to a fixed size. A coronary angioplasty is a therapeutic procedure to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease.