Angle modulation

Angle modulation is a class of carrier modulation that is used in telecommunications transmission systems.wikipedia
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Modulation

modulatedmodulatordigital modulation
Angle modulation is a class of carrier modulation that is used in telecommunications transmission systems.

Phase modulation

phase modulatedPMphase-modulated
The class comprises frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), and is based on altering the frequency or the phase, respectively, of a carrier signal to encode the message signal. The functional form of the cosine term, which contains the expression of the instantaneous phase as its argument, provides the distinction of the two types of angle modulation, frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM).
Phase modulation is one of the two principal forms of angle modulation, together with frequency modulation.

Frequency modulation

FMfrequency modulatedfrequency-modulated
The class comprises frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), and is based on altering the frequency or the phase, respectively, of a carrier signal to encode the message signal. The functional form of the cosine term, which contains the expression of the instantaneous phase as its argument, provides the distinction of the two types of angle modulation, frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM). Frequency modulation is widely used for FM broadcasting of radio programming, and largely supplanted amplitude modulation for this purpose starting in the 1930s, with its invention by American engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1933.
Frequency modulation and phase modulation are the two complementary principal methods of angle modulation; phase modulation is often used as an intermediate step to achieve frequency modulation.

Polar modulation

The combination of phase modulation with amplitude modulation, practiced as early as 1874 by Thomas Edison in the quadruplex telegraph for transmitting four signals, two each in both directions of transmission, constitutes the polar modulation technique.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
Angle modulation is a class of carrier modulation that is used in telecommunications transmission systems.

Frequency

frequenciesperiodperiodic
The class comprises frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), and is based on altering the frequency or the phase, respectively, of a carrier signal to encode the message signal.

Phase (waves)

phasephase shiftout of phase
The class comprises frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), and is based on altering the frequency or the phase, respectively, of a carrier signal to encode the message signal.

Amplitude

peak-to-peakintensityvolume
This contrasts with varying the amplitude of the carrier, practiced in amplitude modulation (AM) transmission, the earliest of the major modulation methods used widely in early radio broadcasting.

Amplitude modulation

AMamplitude modulatedamplitude-modulated
This contrasts with varying the amplitude of the carrier, practiced in amplitude modulation (AM) transmission, the earliest of the major modulation methods used widely in early radio broadcasting.

Angular frequency

angular rateangular speedangular frequencies
A(t) represents the time-varying amplitude of the sinusoidal carrier wave and the cosine-term is the carrier at its circular frequency \omega, and the instantaneous phase deviation \phi(t).

Carrier wave

carrier frequencycarriercarrier signal
The class comprises frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM), and is based on altering the frequency or the phase, respectively, of a carrier signal to encode the message signal.

Instantaneous phase and frequency

instantaneous frequencyinstantaneous phasephase unwrapping
The functional form of the cosine term, which contains the expression of the instantaneous phase as its argument, provides the distinction of the two types of angle modulation, frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM).

Keying (telecommunications)

keyingkeyed-on
In general, however, when using digital signals to modify the carrier wave, the method is called keying, rather than modulation.

Modem

modemsdial-up modem56k modem
Thus, telecommunications modems use frequency-shift keying (FSK), phase-shift keying (PSK), or amplitude-phase keying (APK), or various combinations.

Frequency-shift keying

FSKfrequency shift keyingAFSK
Thus, telecommunications modems use frequency-shift keying (FSK), phase-shift keying (PSK), or amplitude-phase keying (APK), or various combinations.

Phase-shift keying

QPSKBPSKPSK
Thus, telecommunications modems use frequency-shift keying (FSK), phase-shift keying (PSK), or amplitude-phase keying (APK), or various combinations.

Amplitude and phase-shift keying

16APSK32APSKamplitude-phase keying
Thus, telecommunications modems use frequency-shift keying (FSK), phase-shift keying (PSK), or amplitude-phase keying (APK), or various combinations.

Line code

line codingbaseband transmissionencoding scheme
Furthermore, another digital modulation is line coding, which uses a baseband carrier, rather than a passband wave.

Baseband

baseband signalbase bandcellular baseband
Furthermore, another digital modulation is line coding, which uses a baseband carrier, rather than a passband wave.

Passband

pass bandpass-bandpassband signal
Furthermore, another digital modulation is line coding, which uses a baseband carrier, rather than a passband wave.

FM broadcasting

FMFM radioFM station
Frequency modulation is widely used for FM broadcasting of radio programming, and largely supplanted amplitude modulation for this purpose starting in the 1930s, with its invention by American engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1933.

Radio programming

radioradio showradio program
Frequency modulation is widely used for FM broadcasting of radio programming, and largely supplanted amplitude modulation for this purpose starting in the 1930s, with its invention by American engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1933.

Edwin Howard Armstrong

Edwin ArmstrongEdwin H. ArmstrongArmstrong
Frequency modulation is widely used for FM broadcasting of radio programming, and largely supplanted amplitude modulation for this purpose starting in the 1930s, with its invention by American engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1933.

Two-way radio

two way radioRadio Operatortwo-way radios
FM also has many other applications, such as in two-way radio communications, and in FM synthesis for music synthesizers.

Frequency modulation synthesis

FM synthesisFMFM synthesizer
FM also has many other applications, such as in two-way radio communications, and in FM synthesis for music synthesizers.