Diagram of rays at a surface, where is the angle of refraction.
Refraction of light at the interface between two media.
Simple ray diagram showing typical chief and marginal rays
Focusing X-rays with glancing reflection
Rays and wavefronts

In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.

- Angle of incidence (optics)

An is a ray of light that strikes a surface. The angle between this ray and the perpendicular or normal to the surface is the angle of incidence.

- Ray (optics)
Diagram of rays at a surface, where is the angle of refraction.

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