Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

Britain, 383–410
An 1130 depiction of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes crossing the sea to Britain equipped with war gear from the Miscellany on the Life of St. Edmund
Britain around the year 540. Anglo-Saxon kingdom's names are coloured red. Britonnic kingdoms' names are coloured black.
Folio 3v from the Petersburg Bede. The Saint Petersburg Bede (Saint Petersburg, National Library of Russia, lat. Q. v. I. 18), a near-contemporary version of the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
Kenneth Jackson's map showing British river names of Celtic etymology, thought to be a good indicator of the spread of Old English. Area I, where Celtic names are rare and confined to large and medium-sized rivers, shows English-language dominance to c. 500–550; Area II to c. 600; Area III, where even many small streams have Brittonic names to c. 700. In Area IV, Brittonic remained the dominant language 'till at least the Norman Conquest' and river names are overwhelmingly Celtic.
Map of place-names between the Firth of Forth and the River Tees: in green, names likely containing Brittonic elements; in red and orange, names likely containing the Old English elements -ham and -ingaham respectively. Brittonic names lie mostly to the north of the Lammermuir and Moorfoot Hills.
The name of the Bretwalda Ceawlin, rendered 'ceaulin', as it appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (C-text)
An Anglo-Frisian funerary urn excavated from the Snape ship burial in East Anglia. Item is located in Aldeburgh Moot Hall Museum
Romano-British or Anglo-Saxon belt fittings in the Quoit Brooch Style from the Mucking Anglo-Saxon cemetery, early 5th century, using a mainly Roman style for very early Anglo-Saxon clients
Frankish glass 'claw beaker' 5th–6th century, excavated in Kent
Early cemeteries of possible Settler origin
Map of Y-chromosome distribution from data derived from "Y chromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration" by Weale et al. (2002)
Possible routes of Anglo-Saxon migration in the 5th/6th centuries
Probable areas for Saxon settler communities
A type of Anglo-Saxon building called a Grubenhaus

Process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.

- Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
Britain, 383–410

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Barbury Castle, a 6th-century hill fort near Swindon in South West England

Sub-Roman Britain

Barbury Castle, a 6th-century hill fort near Swindon in South West England
Roman coins findings clearly indicate the areas of biggest "romanization" and presence in Roman Britain
Britain c. 540, in the time of Gildas
The famous Sutton Hoo helmet, 7th century

Sub-Roman Britain is the period of late antiquity on the island of Great Britain between the end of Roman rule and the Anglo-Saxon settlement.

History of Anglo-Saxon England

United as the Kingdom of England by King Æthelstan (r.

United as the Kingdom of England by King Æthelstan (r.

2nd to 5th century simplified migration patterns
Map of Briton settlements in the 6th century
Southern Britain in AD 600 after the Anglo-Saxon settlement, showing division into multiple petty kingdoms
Anglo-Saxon and British kingdoms c. 800
Silver coin of Aldfrith of Northumbria (686–705). OBVERSE: +AldFRIdUS, pellet-in-annulet; REVERSE: Lion with forked tail standing left
Escomb Church, a restored 7th-century Anglo-Saxon church. Church architecture and artefacts provide a useful source of historical information.
Whitby Abbey
Map of England in 878 showing the extent of the Danelaw
The walled defence round a burgh. Alfred's capital, Winchester. Saxon and medieval work on Roman foundations.
Edgar's coinage
Viking longboat replica in Ramsgate, Kent
Cnut's dominions. The Norwegian lands of Jemtland, Herjedalen, Idre, and Særna are not included in this map.
St Bene't's Church of Cambridge, the oldest extant building in Cambridgeshire; its tower was built in the late Anglo-Saxon period.
Section of the Bayeux Tapestry showing Harold being killed at Hastings

The Anglo-Saxons were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the southern half of the island of Great Britain from nearby northwestern Europe.

Statue of Saint Gildas near the village of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys (France).

Gildas

Statue of Saint Gildas near the village of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys (France).
The spring of St Gildas in Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys, Morbihan

Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 450/500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.

Remains of the city walls

Verulamium

Town in Roman Britain.

Town in Roman Britain.

Remains of the city walls
Roman theatre
Stretch of Roman wall by the London Gate
The Verulamium Museum in 2003

St Albans Abbey and the associated Anglo-Saxon settlement were founded on a hill outside the Roman city.

The penultimate set of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms was fivefold. The map annotates the names of the peoples of Essex and Sussex taken into the Kingdom of Wessex, which later took in the Kingdom of Kent and became the senior dynasty), and the outlier kingdoms. From Bartholomew's A literary & historical atlas of Europe (1914)

Heptarchy

See History of Anglo-Saxon England for a historical discussion.

See History of Anglo-Saxon England for a historical discussion.

The penultimate set of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms was fivefold. The map annotates the names of the peoples of Essex and Sussex taken into the Kingdom of Wessex, which later took in the Kingdom of Kent and became the senior dynasty), and the outlier kingdoms. From Bartholomew's A literary & historical atlas of Europe (1914)
The main Anglo-Saxon kingdoms' names are written in red
Kingdom of East Anglia
Kingdom of Essex
Kingdom of Kent (White horse of Kent)
Kingdom of Mercia (Flag of Mercia)
Kingdom of Northumbria
Kingdom of Sussex
Kingdom of Wessex (Arms of Edward the Confessor)

The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until the 8th century consolidation into the four kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia.

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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England in the Early Middle Ages.

The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England in the Early Middle Ages.

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The migrations according to Bede, who wrote some 300 years after the event; there is archeological evidence that the settlers in England came from many of these mainland locations
The Tribal Hidage, from an edition of Henry Spelman's Glossarium Archaiologicum
Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Anglo-Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.
Æthelstan presenting a gospel book to (the long-dead) St Cuthbert (934); Corpus Christi College Cambridge MS 183, fol. 1v
A political map of Britain circa 650 (the names are in modern English)
Map of Britain in 802. By this date, historians today rarely distinguish between Angles, Saxons and Jutes.
The Oseberg ship prow, Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.
Anglo-Saxon-Viking coin weight. Material is lead and weighs approx 36 g. Embedded with a sceat dating to 720–750 AD and minted in Kent. It is edged in dotted triangle pattern. Origin is the Danelaw region and dates late 8th to 9th century.
A royal gift, the Alfred Jewel
Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum.
Cnut's 'Quatrefoil' type penny with the legend "CNUT REX ANGLORU[M]" (Cnut, King of the English), struck in London by the moneyer Edwin.
Depiction of the Battle of Hastings (1066) on the Bayeux Tapestry
Anglo-Saxon king with his witan. Biblical scene in the Illustrated Old English Hexateuch (11th century)
The right half of the front panel of the seventh century Franks Casket, depicting the pan-Germanic legend of Weyland Smith also Weyland The Smith, which was apparently also a part of Anglo-Saxon pagan mythology.
An 8th-century copy of the Rule of St. Benedict
Replica of the Sutton Hoo helmet
Panorama of the reconstructed 7th century village
Reconstruction of the Anglo-Saxon royal palace at Cheddar around 1000
Distinctive Anglo-Saxon pilaster strips on the tower of All Saints' Church, Earls Barton
Shoulder clasp (closed) from the Sutton Hoo ship-burial 1, England. British Museum.
Book of Cerne, evangelist portrait of Saint Mark
Her sƿutelað seo gecƿydrædnes ðe ('Here is manifested the Word to thee'). Old English inscription over the arch of the south porticus in the 10th-century St Mary's parish church, Breamore, Hampshire
The initial page of Rochester Cathedral Library, MS A.3.5, the Textus Roffensis, which contains the only surviving copy of Æthelberht's laws.
First page of the epic Beowulf
St Peter-in-the-Wall, Essex: A simple nave church of the early style {{circa|lk=no|650}}
Brixworth, Northants: monastery founded {{circa|lk=no|690}}, one of the largest churches to survive relatively intact
Barnack, Peterborough: Lower tower {{circa|lk=no|970}} – spire is later
Sompting Church, Sussex, with the only Anglo-Saxon Rhenish helm tower to survive, {{circa|lk=no|1050}}
Sutton Hoo purse-lid {{circa|lk=no|620}}
Codex Aureus of Canterbury {{circa|lk=no|750}}
Ruthwell Cross {{circa|lk=no|750}}
Trewhiddle style on silver ring {{circa|lk=no|775|850}}
St Oswald's Priory Cross {{circa|lk=no|890}}

Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman Conquest.

Old English

Earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

Earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

Alfred the Great statue in Winchester, Hampshire. The 9th-century English King proposed that primary education be taught in English, with those wishing to advance to holy orders to continue their studies in Latin.
The dialects of Old English c. 800 CE
Her sƿutelað seo gecƿydrædnes ðe ('Here the Word is revealed to thee'). Old English inscription over the arch of the south porticus in the 10th-century St Mary's parish church, Breamore, Hampshire
The runic alphabet used to write Old English before the introduction of the Latin alphabet
The first page of the Beowulf manuscript with its opening Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."

It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century.

The Brittonic speakers around the 6th century. Cornish and Breton are very closely related

Cornish language

Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.

Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.

The Brittonic speakers around the 6th century. Cornish and Breton are very closely related
The first page of Vocabularium Cornicum, a 12th-century Latin-Cornish glossary
The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of medieval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century
Beunans Meriasek (The life of St. Meriasek) (f.56v.) Middle Cornish Saint's Play
A map showing the westward decline of Cornish, 1300–1750
William Bodinar's letter, dated 3 July 1776
Dolly Pentreath (died 1777), said to be the last monolingual speaker of Cornish, in an engraved portrait published in 1781
Cornish can be seen in many places in Cornwall; this sign is at Penzance railway station
The view from Carn Brea beacon (Karn Bre) in Penwith (Pennwydh), near Crows-an-Wra (Krows an Wragh), looking towards the village of Treave (Trev) with Porthcurno (Porthkornow) in the distance. The Cornish language has had substantial influence on Cornwall's toponymy and nomenclature.
Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) mounted on the north side of Blackheath common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park
Welcome sign at Truro Cathedral in several languages, including Cornish.
Place-names translated into SWF

As a result of westward Anglo-Saxon expansion, the Britons of the southwest were separated from those in modern-day Wales and Cumbria, which Jackson links to the defeat of the Britons at the Battle of Deorham in about 577.

Regions where respondents stated they could speak Irish from 2011

Brittonic languages

Goidelic.

Goidelic.

Regions where respondents stated they could speak Irish from 2011

[[File:Map Gaels Brythons Picts.png|thumb|right|250px|Britain & Ireland in the early–mid 1st millennium, before the founding of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.

England

Country that is part of the United Kingdom.

Country that is part of the United Kingdom.

Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
View of the ramparts of the developed hillfort of Maiden Castle, Dorset, as they look today
Boudica led an uprising against the Roman Empire.
Replica of the 7th-century ceremonial Sutton Hoo helmet from the Kingdom of East Anglia
King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, fought on Saint Crispin's Day and concluded with an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War
The English Restoration restored the monarchy under King Charles II and peace after the English Civil War.
The River Thames during the Georgian period from the Terrace of Somerset House looking towards St. Paul's, c.1750
The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Victorian era is often cited as a Golden Age.
The Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Royal Courts of Justice
Skiddaw massif, seen from Walla Crag in the Lake District
The Malvern Hills located in the English counties of Worcestershire and Herefordshire. The hills have been designated by the Countryside Agency as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
Wood duck in St James's Park
Deer in Richmond Park. The park was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park.
The City of London is the financial capital of the United Kingdom and one of the largest financial centres in the world.
The Bentley Mulsanne. Bentley is a well-known English car company.
Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most influential figures in the history of science.
King Charles II, a patron of the arts and sciences, supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton.
London St Pancras International is the UK's 13th busiest railway terminus. The station is one of London's main domestic and international transport hubs providing both commuter rail and high-speed rail services across the UK and to Paris, Lille and Brussels.
Hitachi AT300 at London Paddington Station.
Wind turbines at Den Brook, Devon. The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply.
The timber-framed street of The Shambles in York
William Beveridge's 1942 report Social Insurance and Allied Services (known as the Beveridge Report) served as the basis for the post-World War II welfare state
The metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, colour-coded to show population
Population of England and Wales by administrative areas. Their size shows their population, with some approximation. Each group of squares in the map key is 20 % of total number of districts.
Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Westminster Abbey is a notable example of English Gothic architecture. The coronation of the British monarch traditionally takes place at the Abbey.
The hall of Christ Church, University of Oxford.
Bridge of Sighs, St John's College, University of Cambridge.
A red telephone box in front of St Paul's Cathedral, one of the most important buildings of the English Baroque period
Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex.
The landscape garden at Stourhead. Inspired by the great landscape artists of the seventeenth century, the landscape garden was described as a 'living work of art' when first opened in 1750s.
Robin Hood and Maid Marian.
Fish and chips is a traditionally popular dish in England
The Hay Wain by John Constable, 1821, is an archetypal English painting.
The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse, 1888, in the Pre-Raphaelite style
Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales.
Ridley Scott was among a group of English filmmakers, including Tony Scott, Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and Adrian Lyne, who emerged from making 1970s UK television commercials.
The Natural History Museum in London
Queen Elizabeth II presenting the World Cup trophy to 1966 World Cup winning England captain Bobby Moore
Wembley Stadium, home of the England football team, has a 90,000 capacity. It is the biggest stadium in the UK.
England playing Australia at Lord's Cricket Ground in the 2009 Ashes series. After winning the 2019 Cricket World Cup, England became the first country to win the World Cups in football, rugby union and cricket.
The England rugby union team during their victory parade after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup
Centre Court at Wimbledon. First played in 1877, the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.
Former Formula One world champion Nigel Mansell driving at Silverstone in 1990. The circuit hosted the first ever Formula One race in 1950.
Mo Farah is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games history, winning the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at two Olympic Games.
The Royal Arms of England
The Tudor rose, England's national floral emblem
The Family of Henry VIII: an allegory of the Tudor succession.
The Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control.