Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

Anglo-Saxon invasion of BritainSaxonAnglo-Saxon settlementAnglo-SaxonAnglo-Saxon invasionSaxon invasions of BritainAnglo-Saxon migrationSaxon invasionsAnglo-Saxon invasionsSaxon invasion
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.wikipedia
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Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
Other tribes settled Great Britain and became known as the Anglo-Saxons.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement.

Heptarchy

Anglo-Saxon kingdomsAnglo-Saxon kingsAnglo-Saxon kingdom
The settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain, later followed by the rest of modern England.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England (sometimes referred to as petty kingdoms) from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English.
It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century.

History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon EnglandAnglo-SaxonSaxon
In this case, the prevalent genes of later Anglo-Saxon England could have been largely derived from moderate numbers of Germanic migrants.
The Anglo-Saxons were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the southern half of the island of Great Britain from nearby northwestern Europe.

Gildas

Saint GildasSt GildasLife of Gildas
In Gildas' work of the sixth century (perhaps 510–530), De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, a religious tract on the state of Britain, the Saxons were enemies originally from overseas, who brought well-deserved judgement upon the local kings or 'tyrants'.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.

British Latin

British RomanceBritish Vulgar LatinBritain
Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English.
With the end of Roman rule, Latin was displaced as a spoken language by Old English in most of what became England during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of the fifth and sixth centuries.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
The settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain, later followed by the rest of modern England.
In the course of the 500 years after the Roman Empire fell, the Britons of the south and east of the island were assimilated or displaced by invading Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, often referred to collectively as Anglo-Saxons).

Groans of the Britons

According to Gildas and various later medieval sources, the failure of the Roman armies to secure Britain led the Britons to invite Anglo-Saxon mercenaries to the island, precipitating the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae

De Excidio BritanniaeGildasaccount
In Gildas' work of the sixth century (perhaps 510–530), De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, a religious tract on the state of Britain, the Saxons were enemies originally from overseas, who brought well-deserved judgement upon the local kings or 'tyrants'.
Part I is particularly notable as the earliest source to mention Ambrosius Aurelianus, an important figure of British tradition credited with turning the tide against the Anglo-Saxon conquest.

Verulamium

St AlbansVerulamVerulamium Museum
However, evidence from Verulamium suggests that urban-type rebuilding, featuring piped water, was continuing late on in the fifth century, if not beyond.
St Albans Abbey and the associated Anglo-Saxon settlement were founded on a hill outside the Roman city.

Brittonicisms in English

substrate influenceBrittonicisminfluence on the structure of English
Extensive research is ongoing on whether British Celtic did exert subtle substrate influence on the phonology, morphology, and syntax of Old English (as well as on whether British Latin-speakers influenced the Brittonic languages, perhaps as they fled westwards from Anglo-Saxon domination into highland areas of Britain).
Brittonicisms in English are the linguistic effects in English attributed to the historical influence of Brittonic speakers as they switched language to English following the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon political dominance in Britain.

Cerdic of Wessex

CerdicCerdric6th century
The Wessex royal line was traditionally founded by a man named Cerdic, an undoubtedly Celtic name identical to Ceretic, the name given to two British kings, and ultimately derived from the Brittonic *Caraticos.
Cerdic (Cerdicus) is cited in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as a leader of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, being the founder and first king of Saxon Wessex, reigning from 519 to 534 AD.

Cornish language

CornishOld CornishMiddle Cornish
Moreover, except in Cornwall, the vast majority of place-names in England are easily etymologised as Old English (or Old Norse, due to later Viking influence), demonstrating the dominance of English across post-Roman England.
As a result of westward Anglo-Saxon expansion, the Britons of the southwest were separated from those in modern-day Wales and Cumbria.

Brittonic languages

BrythonicBrittonicBrythonic languages
Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English.
Map Gaels Brythons Picts.png.

Wessex

West SaxonsWest SaxonKingdom of Wessex
The Wessex royal line was traditionally founded by a man named Cerdic, an undoubtedly Celtic name identical to Ceretic, the name given to two British kings, and ultimately derived from the Brittonic *Caraticos.
In An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England, Peter Hunter Blair divides the traditions concerning the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain into two categories: Welsh and English.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
He says that most people in the British Isles are genetically similar to the Basque people of northern Spain and southwestern France, from 90% in Wales to 66% in East Anglia.
Simultaneously, Celtic Britons, fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, settled the western part of Armorica.

Celtic Britons

BritonsBritishBrythonic
Another theory has challenged this view and started to examine evidence that the majority of Anglo Saxons were Brittonic in origin.
Map Gaels Brythons Picts GB.png.

Anglo-Saxons

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
Another theory has challenged this view and started to examine evidence that the majority of Anglo Saxons were Brittonic in origin. The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins, eventually developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons.
Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.

Kingdom of Lindsey

LindseyLinnuisKings of Lindsey
The British name Caedbaed is found in the pedigree of the kings of Lindsey, which argues for the survival of British elites in this area also.
During the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, from about 450, Lindsey was one of the lesser kingdoms.

Quoit brooch

Quoit Brooch StyleSarre broochQuoit (brooch)
The style of brooches (called Quoits), is unique to southern England in the fifth century AD, with the greatest concentration of such items occurring in Kent.
The quoit brooch is a type of Anglo-Saxon brooch found from the 5th century and later during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain that has given its name to the Quoit Brooch Style to embrace all types of Anglo-Saxon metalwork in the decorative style typical of the finest brooches.

Battle of Badon

Battle of Mons BadonicusMons BadonicusBattle of Mount Badon
The representation of long-lasting British triumphs against the Saxons appears in large parts of the Chronicles, but stems ultimately from Gildas's brief and frustratingly elusive reference to a British victory at Mons Badonicus – Mount Badon (see historical evidence above).
It describes the "siege of Mount Badon, when they made no small slaughter of those invaders," as occurring 44 years after the first Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

Migration Period sword

swordMerovingian swordring-sword
Indicative of possible religious belief, grave goods were common amongst inhumation burials as well as cremations; free Anglo-Saxon men were buried with at least one weapon in the pagan tradition, often a seax, but sometimes also with a spear, sword or shield, or a combination of these.
The design appears to have originated in the late 5th century, possibly with the early Merovingians, and quickly spread to England (from the earliest phase of Anglo-Saxon presence) and Scandinavia.

Romano-British culture

Romano-BritishRomano-BritonsRomano-Celtic
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.

Cultural identity

identitycultural differencescultural identities
The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins, eventually developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons.