Anglo-Saxons

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo SaxonSaxonsAnglo SaxonsEnglishAnglianAngloAnglo-Saxon cultureOld English
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.wikipedia
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Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

Anglo-Saxon invasion of BritainSaxonAnglo-Saxon settlement
Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.
The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins, eventually developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons.

Shire

shiresshiringsheires
The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds.
It was first used in Wessex from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement, and spread to most of the rest of England in the tenth century.

Norman conquest of England

Norman ConquestConquestNorman invasion
Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. Also, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon king Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne.

Anglo-Saxon architecture

SaxonAnglo-SaxonSaxon-era
The visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods.
Anglo-Saxon secular buildings in Britain were generally simple, constructed mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
In scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English. Anglo-Saxon in linguistics is still used as a term for the original West Germanic component of the modern English language, which was later expanded and developed through the influence of Old Norse and Norman French, though linguists now more often refer to it as Old English. The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Angli and Gildas calls Saxones.
As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion.

Anglo-Normans

Anglo-NormanNormanNormans
Also, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.

Danelaw

DanesAnglo-DanishDanish
Also, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The Danelaw (, also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century.
Beginning in the sixth century, the area that is now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which had conquered southeastern Scotland; Settlers from Ireland founded the kingdom of Dál Riata in western Scotland the sixth century, bringing Gaelic language and culture with them.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Anglo-Saxon in linguistics is still used as a term for the original West Germanic component of the modern English language, which was later expanded and developed through the influence of Old Norse and Norman French, though linguists now more often refer to it as Old English.
The earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English.

Bede

Venerable BedeSaint BedeThe Venerable Bede
The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Angli and Gildas calls Saxones. This is an earlier date than that of 451 for the "coming of the Saxons" used by Bede in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, written around 731.
Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, and his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed significantly to English Christianity.

White Anglo-Saxon Protestant

WASPWASPsAnglo-Saxon
"White Anglo-Saxon Protestant", i.e. WASP, is a term especially popular in the United States that refers chiefly to old wealthy families with mostly English ancestors.
Historically, "Anglo-Saxon" referred to the language of indigenous inhabitants of England before 1066, especially in contrast to Norman-French influence after that.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
In the course of the 500 years after the Roman Empire fell, the Britons of the south and east of the island were assimilated or displaced by invading Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, often referred to collectively as Anglo-Saxons).

Saxons

SaxonSassenachSaxon people
The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or possibly Saeson (the word Saeson is the modern Welsh word for 'English people'); the equivalent word in Scottish Gaelic is Sasannach and in the Irish language, Sasanach.
In contrast, the British "Saxons", today referred to in English as Anglo-Saxons, became a single nation bringing together Germanic peoples (Frisian, Jutish, Angle) with the Romanized Britons, establishing long-lasting post-Roman kingdoms equivalent to those formed by the Franks on the continent.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the cultural foundations laid by the Anglo-Saxons are the foundation of the modern English legal system and of many aspects of English society; the modern English language owes over half its words – including the most common words of everyday speech – to the language of the Anglo-Saxons.
Other tribes settled Great Britain and became known as the Anglo-Saxons.

Wessex

West SaxonsWest SaxonKingdom of Wessex
The Wessex royal line was traditionally founded by a man named Cerdic, an undoubtedly Celtic name ultimately derived from Caratacus.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the ‘Kingdom of the West Saxons’) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in 927.

5th century

5th century AD5th-century5th
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

Ecclesiastical History of the English People

Historia ecclesiastica gentis AnglorumEcclesiastical HistoryHistoria Ecclesiastica
This is an earlier date than that of 451 for the "coming of the Saxons" used by Bede in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, written around 731.
It was originally composed in Latin, and is considered one of the most important original references on Anglo-Saxon history and has played a key role in the development of an English national identity.

Spong Hill

In particular, the work of Catherine Hills and Sam Lucy on the evidence of Spong Hill has moved the chronology for the settlement earlier than 450, with a significant number of items now in phases before Bede's date.
Spong Hill is an Anglo-Saxon cemetery site located at North Elmham in Norfolk, England.

Celtic Britons

BritonsBritishBrythonic
They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the cultural foundations laid by the Anglo-Saxons are the foundation of the modern English legal system and of many aspects of English society; the modern English language owes over half its words – including the most common words of everyday speech – to the language of the Anglo-Saxons.
Thirty years or so after the time of the Roman departure, the Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons began a migration to the eastern coast of Britain, where they began to establish their own kingdoms, and the Gaelic speaking Scots migrating from Dál nAraidi (modern Northern Ireland), did the same on the west coast of Scotland and the Isle of Man.

Battle of Badon

Battle of Mons BadonicusMons BadonicusBattle of Mount Badon
Gildas recounts how a war broke out between the Saxons and the local population – Higham calls it the "War of the Saxon Federates" – which ended shortly after the siege at 'Mons Badonicus'.
The Battle of Badon (obsessio[nis] Badonici montis, "Blockade/siege of the Badonic Hill", Bellum in monte Badonis, "Battle on Badon Hill", Bellum Badonis, "Battle of Badon"; Old Welsh: Badon, Middle Welsh: Gweith Vadon, "Battle of Badon", Brwydr Mynydd Baddon, "Battle of Badon Mount/Hill") was a battle thought to have occurred between Celtic Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the late 5th or early 6th century.

Kingdom of Essex

EssexEast SaxonsKing of Essex
They include the provinces of the Jutes of Hampshire and Wight, the South Saxons, Kent, the East Saxons, East Angles, Lindsey and (north of the Humber) Deira and Bernicia.
The Kingdom of the East Saxons (Ēast Seaxna Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.

Migration Period

barbarian invasionsAge of MigrationsVölkerwanderung
It is a period widely known in European history as the Migration Period, also the Völkerwanderung ("migration of peoples" in German).
The first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths (including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths), the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Scirii and the Franks; they were later pushed westward by the Huns, the Avars, the Slavs and the Bulgars.

Old Saxony

SaxonySaxonSaxon lands
This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent (Old Saxony and
This began a vicious 400-year war of occupation and led to the creation of various Saxon kingdoms in England including that of the South Saxons (Sussex), the West Saxons (Wessex) and the East Saxons (Essex) alongside others established by the Angles and the Jutes and are the foundations of the modern English nation.

Deira

Kingdom of DeiraDeifrDeiran
They include the provinces of the Jutes of Hampshire and Wight, the South Saxons, Kent, the East Saxons, East Angles, Lindsey and (north of the Humber) Deira and Bernicia.
Deira (Derenrice or Dere) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in Northern England.

Beowulf

same nameBeowolfBeowulf: A Glossed Text
The process from warrior to cyning – Old English for king – is described in Beowulf:
The author was an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet, referred to by scholars as the "Beowulf poet".