Angolan Civil War

civil warAngolathe civil warAngola's civil warAngolancivil war in AngolaAngola Civil WarShaba InvasionscivilWar in Angola
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002.wikipedia
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Angola

Republic of AngolaAngolanAO
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002.
The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), supported by the United States and South Africa, lasted until 2002.

South African Border War

Namibian War of IndependenceNamibian independenceBorder War
The conflict became closely intertwined with the Second Congo War in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo and the South African Border War.
The South African Border War resulted in some of the largest battles on the African continent since World War II and was closely intertwined with the Angolan Civil War.

Luanda

Luanda, AngolaSão Paulo de LuandaLoanda
The MPLA was primarily an urban based movement in Luanda and its surrounding area. Since its formation in the 1950s, the MPLA's main social base has been among the Ambundu people and the multiracial intelligentsia of cities such as Luanda, Benguela and Huambo.
At the start of the Angolan Civil War in 1975, most of the white Portuguese left as refugees, principally for Portugal.

Agostinho Neto

António Agostinho NetoAgostino NetoNeto
Agostinho Neto, MPLA's leader during the civil war, declared in 1977 that Yugoslav aid was constant and firm, and described the help as extraordinary. Agostinho Neto, the leader of the MPLA, declared the independence of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola as the People's Republic of Angola on 11 November 1975.
Until his death, he led the MPLA in the civil war (1975–2002).

Jonas Savimbi

Jonas''' Malheiro '''SavimbiSavimbi
UNITA was founded in 1966 by Jonas Savimbi, who until then had been a prominent leader of the FNLA.
UNITA first waged a guerrilla war against Portuguese colonial rule, 1966–1974, then confronted the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) during the Angolan Civil War until Savimbi's death in a clash with government troops in 2002.

Portuguese Colonial War

Colonial WarPortuguese Colonial WarsPortuguese Overseas War
The Portuguese Colonial War, which included the Angolan War of Independence, lasted until the Portuguese regime's overthrow in 1974 through a leftist military coup in Lisbon.
Devastating and violent civil wars followed in Angola and Mozambique, which lasted several decades, claimed millions of lives, and resulted in large numbers of displaced refugees.

Operation Savannah (Angola)

Operation SavannahSavannahoperations in Angola
In 1975, South African Prime Minister B.J. Vorster authorized Operation Savannah, which began as an effort to protect engineers constructing the dam at Calueque, after unruly UNITA soldiers took over.
Operation Savannah was the South African Defence Force's 1975–1976 covert intervention in the Angolan War of Independence, and the subsequent Angolan Civil War.

Cabinda Province

CabindaPortuguese CongoCabinda Enclave
Additionally, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), an association of separatist militant groups, fought for the independence of the province of Cabinda from Angola.
While the Angolan Civil War largely ended in 2002, an armed struggle persists in the exclave of Cabinda.

Cuban intervention in Angola

Operation CarlotaAngolaCuba
In response to the South African intervention, Cuba sent 18,000 soldiers as part of a large-scale military intervention nicknamed Operation Carlota in support of the MPLA.
Following the withdrawal of Zaire and South Africa, Cuban forces remained in Angola to support the MPLA government against UNITA in the continuing Angolan Civil War.

People's Republic of Angola

AngolaAngolan People's Republicindependence
Agostinho Neto, the leader of the MPLA, declared the independence of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola as the People's Republic of Angola on 11 November 1975.
The People's Republic of Angola (República Popular de Angola) was the self-declared socialist state which governed Angola from its independence in 1975 until 1992, during the Angolan Civil War.

Battle of Quifangondo

Battle of Kifangondo
The FNLA were likewise routed at the Battle of Quifangondo and forced to retreat towards Zaire.
It can be considered the first battle in the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002).

John Stockwell (CIA officer)

John StockwellJohn R. StockwellStockwell, John
John Stockwell, the CIA's station chief in Angola, echoed Davis' criticism saying that success required the expansion of the program, but its size already exceeded what could be hidden from the public eye.
Having managed American involvement in the Angolan Civil War as Chief of the Angola Task Force during its 1975 covert operations, he resigned and wrote In Search of Enemies.

Huambo

Nova Lisboacity of HuamboHuambo District
Since its formation in the 1950s, the MPLA's main social base has been among the Ambundu people and the multiracial intelligentsia of cities such as Luanda, Benguela and Huambo.
The Angolan Civil War from 1975 until 2002 halted Angola's and Huambo's development, destroying a great part of its infrastructure.

Operation IA Feature

IAFEATUREcovert intervention programme in Angola
President of the United States Gerald Ford approved covert aid to UNITA and the FNLA through Operation IA Feature on 18 July 1975, despite strong opposition from officials in the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Operation IA Feature, a covert Central Intelligence Agency operation, authorized U.S. government support for Jonas Savimbi's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and Holden Roberto's National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) militants in the Angolan Civil War.

Cuba

Republic of CubaCubanCUB
The war was used as a surrogate battleground for the Cold War by rival states such as the Soviet Union, Cuba, South Africa and the United States.
Cuba supported Algeria in 1961–1965, and sent tens of thousands of troops to Angola during the Angolan Civil War.

Second Congo War

Congo Civil WarSecondcivil war
The conflict became closely intertwined with the Second Congo War in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo and the South African Border War.
The Angolan government had fought against Mobutu Sésé Seko in the First Congo War because of his support for rebel UNITA in the Angolan Civil War.

Benguela

Benguellacity of Benguelahistory
Since its formation in the 1950s, the MPLA's main social base has been among the Ambundu people and the multiracial intelligentsia of cities such as Luanda, Benguela and Huambo.
Due to the civil war in Angola (1975–2002), which lasted more than 20 years after independence from Portugal, the important Benguela railway line closed, with only the short distance of 30 km between Benguela and Lobito remaining operational.

Ovimbundu

Ovimbundu KingdomsSouthern Mbundu peopleMbundu
UNITA, an offshoot of the FNLA, was mainly composed of Ovimbundu people from the Central highlands.
The Ovimbundu are the main social basis of UNITA, an anti-colonial movement that fought against the Portuguese from 1966 to 1974, was an adversary of the rival movement MPLA during the Angolan Civil War of 1975 to 2002, and is at present an opposition political party.

Foreign policy of the Mobutu Sese Seko administration

Zaire's foreign policyForeign policy of Mobutu Sese Seko
American timidity during the war prompted a shift in Zaire's foreign policy towards greater engagement with France, which became Zaire's largest supplier of arms after the intervention.
In spite of these hindrances, the chilly relationship quickly thawed during the Angolan Civil War when the U.S. government began aiding the anti-Communist National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), led by Mobutu's Holden Roberto.

Dick Clark (senator)

Dick ClarkRichard C. ClarkU.S. Senator Dick Clark
Dick Clark, a Democratic Senator from Iowa, discovered the operation during a fact-finding mission in Africa, but Seymour Hersh, a reporter for The New York Times, revealed IA Feature to the public on 13 December 1975.
Clark served on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and chaired the Subcommittee on Africa, developing considerable expertise on the crisis in Angola.

Calueque

Calueque Dam
In 1975, South African Prime Minister B.J. Vorster authorized Operation Savannah, which began as an effort to protect engineers constructing the dam at Calueque, after unruly UNITA soldiers took over.
However, due to the onset of the Angolan civil war following independence, the full master plan for the scheme was not realised by the South African and Portuguese governments.

Mobutu Sese Seko

MobutuJoseph-Désiré MobutuJoseph Mobutu
However, it rapidly developed into a nationalist movement, supported in its struggle against Portugal by the government of Mobutu Sese Seko in Zaire.
Relations cooled further in 1975, when the two countries found themselves on opposing sides in the Angolan Civil War.

Huíla Province

HuílaHuilaHuila Province
South African forces tried to capture Lubango, capital of Huíla province, in Operation Askari in December 1983.
From the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1975) to Angola's independence, and the subsequent civil war in Angola (1975-2002) Huíla was directly affected only during relatively short periods of time.

Operation Askari

Askari
South African forces tried to capture Lubango, capital of Huíla province, in Operation Askari in December 1983.
Operation Askari was a military operation during 1983 in Angola by the South African Defence Force (SADF) during the South African Border War and Angolan Civil War.

Civil war

civil warsinternecine warcivil conflict
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002.
If one of the intervening states was a superpower, a civil war is a further 72% longer; a conflict such as the Angolan Civil War, in which there is two-sided foreign intervention, including by a superpower (actually, two superpowers in the case of Angola), would be 538% longer on average than a civil war without any international intervention.