Animal welfare

welfareanimal protectionanimal rescuewelfare of animalsAnimal CareAnimal Advocacyanimal-welfaresufferingAnimal activistsanimal advocate
Animal welfare is the well-being of nonhuman animals.wikipedia
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Animal welfare science

Animal PhysiologyAnimal welfare scientistsbehavioral and physiological indicators of animal welfare
Animal welfare science uses various measures, such as longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behavior, physiology, and reproduction, although there is debate about which of these indicators provide the best information.
Although animal welfare has been of great concern for many thousands of years in religion and culture, the investigation of animal welfare using rigorous scientific methods is a relatively recent development.

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

RSPCASociety for the Prevention of Cruelty to AnimalsR.S.P.C.A.
Martin was among the founders of the world's first animal welfare organization, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or SPCA, in 1824.
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity operating in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare.

Humane Society of the United States

Humane Societythe Humane Society of the United StatesHSUS
The campaign to achieve the UDAW is being co-ordinated by World Animal Protection, with a core working group including Compassion in World Farming, the RSPCA, and the Humane Society International (the international branch of HSUS).
The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in 1954, to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.

Compassion in World Farming

The campaign to achieve the UDAW is being co-ordinated by World Animal Protection, with a core working group including Compassion in World Farming, the RSPCA, and the Humane Society International (the international branch of HSUS).
Compassion in World Farming (CIWF) is a campaigning and lobbying animal welfare organisation.

World Animal Protection

WSPAWorld Society for the Protection of AnimalsWAP
The campaign to achieve the UDAW is being co-ordinated by World Animal Protection, with a core working group including Compassion in World Farming, the RSPCA, and the Humane Society International (the international branch of HSUS).
World Animal Protection (formerly The World Society for the Protection of Animals) is an international non-profit animal welfare organization that has been in operation for over 30 years.

Ruth Harrison

In 1965, the UK government commissioned an investigation—led by Professor Roger Brambell—into the welfare of intensively farmed animals, partly in response to concerns raised in Ruth Harrison's 1964 book, Animal Machines.
Ruth Harrison OBE (24 June 1920 [Ruth Winsten] – 13 June 2000), was a British animal welfare activist and author.

Five freedoms

The Five Freedoms
The guidelines have since been elaborated upon to become known as the Five Freedoms.
The Five Freedoms outline five aspects of animal welfare under human control.

Cruelty to animals

animal crueltyanimal abusecruelty
Cruelty to animals
For example, the animal welfare position holds that there is nothing inherently wrong with using animals for human purposes, such as food, clothing, entertainment, and research, but that it should be done in a way that minimizes unnecessary pain and suffering, sometimes referred to as "humane" treatment.

Overview of discretionary invasive procedures on animals

unnecessary mutilation
Overview of discretionary invasive procedures on animals Issues include the limited opportunities for natural behaviors, for example, in battery cages, veal and gestation crates, instead producing abnormal behaviors such as tail-biting, cannibalism, and feather pecking, and routine invasive procedures such as beak trimming, castration, and ear notching.
Such procedures have been grouped together under the technical term "mutilatory" by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in a report describing the reasons for their being conducted and their welfare consequences, and by others.

Intensive animal farming

factory farmingfactory farmsfactory farm
A major concern for the welfare of farm animals is factory farming in which large numbers of animals are reared in confinement at high stocking densities.
The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare; and the environmental impact (e.g. agricultural pollution) and health risks.

Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822

An Act to prevent the cruel and improper Treatment of Cattleanimal protection lawCruel Treatment of Cattle Act
Since 1822, when Irish MP Richard Martin brought the "Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822" through Parliament offering protection from cruelty to cattle, horses, and sheep, an animal welfare movement has been active in England.
It was one of the first pieces of animal welfare legislation.

Overpopulation in domestic pets

pet overpopulationoverpopulation in companion animalsanimal overpopulation
Overpopulation in companion animals
Dealing with a population of unwanted domestic animals is a major concern to animal welfare and animal rights groups.

Suffering

paindistressdispleasure
Respect for animal welfare is often based on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their well-being or suffering, especially when they are under the care of humans.
Such aspects may include public health, human rights, humanitarian aid, disaster relief, philanthropy, economic aid, social services, insurance, and animal welfare.

Blood sport

blood sportsanimal fightingbloodsport
Blood sport
In the Victorian era, social reformers began a vocal opposition to such activities, claiming grounds of ethics, morality and animal welfare.

Hunting

hunterhuntershunt
Hunting
These forms of hunting have been controversial in the UK. Animal welfare supporters believe that hunting causes unnecessary suffering to foxes, horses, and hounds.

Whaling

whalerswhalerwhale hunting
Whaling
Key elements of the debate over whaling include sustainability, ownership, national sovereignty, cetacean intelligence, suffering during hunting, health risks, the value of 'lethal sampling' to establish catch quotas, the value of controlling whales' impact on fish stocks and the rapidly approaching extinction of a few whale species.

Poultry farming

poultry farmpoultrychicken farm
This leads to further concerns about premature slaughtering such as chick culling by the laying hen industry, in which males are slaughtered immediately after hatching because they are superfluous; this policy occurs in other farm animal industries such as the production of goat and cattle milk, raising the same concerns.
Animal welfare groups have frequently criticized the poultry industry for engaging in practices which they believe to be inhumane.

Veal

veal cratescalfmilk veal
Issues include the limited opportunities for natural behaviors, for example, in battery cages, veal and gestation crates, instead producing abnormal behaviors such as tail-biting, cannibalism, and feather pecking, and routine invasive procedures such as beak trimming, castration, and ear notching.
Veal production is a controversial topic in animal welfare and some methods are cited as animal cruelty by multiple animal welfare organizations.

Albert Knapp

In 1837, the German minister Albert Knapp founded the first German animal welfare society.
Rev. Knapp is also distinguished as an important figure in the history of the animal welfare movement in Germany, and he established an animal protection organisation in Stuttgart in 1837.

Donald Broom

Coping - Professor Donald Broom defines the welfare of an animal as "Its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes how much it is having to do to cope, the extent to which it is succeeding in or failing to cope, and its associated feelings."
Donald Maurice Broom (born 14 July 1942) is an English biologist and emeritus professor of animal welfare at Cambridge University.

Pet

petscompanion animalscompanion animal
The Georgia Animal Protection Act of 1986 was a state law enacted in response to the inhumane treatment of companion animals by a pet store chain in Atlanta.
The keeping of animals as pets can cause concerns with regard to animal rights and welfare.

Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare

A number of animal welfare organisations are campaigning to achieve a Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW) at the United Nations.
Recognition that animal welfare includes animal health and encompasses both the physical and psychological state of the animal and that good practices in animal welfare can have major benefits for humans and the environment

Gary L. Francione

Gary FrancioneFrancione, Gary
New welfarism was coined by Gary L. Francione in 1996.
His work has focused on three issues: the property status of animals, the differences between animal rights and animal welfare, and a theory of animal rights based on sentience alone, rather than on any other cognitive characteristics.

Marian Dawkins

Marian Ellina DawkinsMarian StampProfessor Marian Stamp Dawkins
Emotion in animals - Others in the field, such as Professor Ian Duncan and Professor Marian Dawkins, focus more on the feelings of the animal.
Her research interests include vision in birds, animal signalling, behavioural synchrony, animal consciousness and animal welfare.

Canadian Federation of Humane Societies

Ontario Humane SocietySPCA
Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (CFHS): The only national organization representing humane societies and SPCAs in Canada.
The Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (CFHS) is the largest national animal welfare organization in Canada, representing humane societies, SPCAs, and animal rescue organizations.