Animation

animatedanimated filmanimated short3D animationanimated filmsanimated featureanimatoranimationsanimated cartoonsanimated short film
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images.wikipedia
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Film

motion picturemoviefilms
In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film.
The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.

Zoetrope

3D zoetropemoving picture advertisingthree-dimensional zoetrope
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.
A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.

Phenakistiscope

phenakistoscopephénakisticopeearly moving picture
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.
The phénakisticope (better known as phenakistiscope or the later misspelling phenakistoscope) was the first widespread animation device that created a fluid illusion of motion.

Clay animation

claymationclay-animatedclay
Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures.
Traditional animation, from cel animation to stop motion, is produced by recording each frame, or still picture, on film or digital media and then playing the recorded frames back in rapid succession before the viewer.

Motion graphics

motion graphicbroadcast designvideos
Apart from short films, feature films, animated GIF's and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is also heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects.
Motion graphics are pieces of animation or digital footage which create the illusion of motion or rotation, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects.

Praxinoscope

praxinoscopes
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.
The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope.

GIF

animated GIF.gifGraphics Interchange Format
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed.
It also supports animations and allows a separate palette of up to 256 colors for each frame.

Beta movement

apparent motion
The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain.
The illusion of motion caused by animation and film relies on beta movement.

Animator

animatorsanimation artistanimated
Animators are artists who specialize in creating animation.
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence.

Rotoscoping

rotoscoperotoscopedrotoscoped animation
By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops, usually by tracing live-action film footage (much like the later rotoscoping technique).
Rotoscoping is an animation technique that animators use to trace over motion picture footage, frame by frame, to produce realistic action.

3D computer graphics

3D3D graphicsthree-dimensional
Computer animation can be very detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings.
One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld (1976), which included an animation of a human face and a hand that had originally appeared in the 1971 experimental short A Computer Animated Hand, created by University of Utah students Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.

History of animation

animated cartoonanimatedcartoons
During the 1910s, the production of animated short films, known as "cartoons", became an industry and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in cinemas.
The history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.

Gertie the Dinosaur

Gertie
His Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) was also an early example of character development in drawn animation.
Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay.

Traditional animation

cel animationtraditionally animatedTraditional
In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.
Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation or hand-drawn animation) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand.

Little Nemo (1911 film)

Little Nemo
Winsor McCay's Little Nemo (1911) showcased very detailed drawings.
Little Nemo, also known as Winsor McCay: The Famous Cartoonist of the N.Y. Herald and His Moving Comics, is a 1911 silent animated short film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay.

Morphing

morphmorphedmorphs
The film largely consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image or shape into another through a seamless transition.

Ladislas Starevich

Wladyslaw StarewiczWładysław StarewiczLadislas Starewitch
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées [Animated Matches] (1908), Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910.
Ladislas Starevich (Владисла́в Алекса́ндрович Старе́вич, Władysław Starewicz; August 8, 1882 – February 26, 1965) was a Polish-Russian stop-motion animator notable as the author of the first puppet-animated film The Beautiful Leukanida (1912).

Fantasmagorie (1908 film)

Fantasmagorie
In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper.
Fantasmagorie is a 1908 French animated film by Émile Cohl.

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)

Snow White and the Seven DwarfsSnow WhiteSnow White and the Seven Dwarves
The first full-color animated feature film was "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", also by Walt Disney.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and originally released by RKO Radio Pictures.

Technicolor

Technicolor Corporationthree-strip TechnicolorTechnicolour
In 1932, the first short animated film created entirely with Technicolor (using red/green/blue photographic filters and three strips of film in the camera) was Disney's Flowers and Trees, directed by Burt Gillett.
Technicolor became known and celebrated for its highly saturated color, and was initially most commonly used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Down Argentine Way (1940), costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938) and Gone with the Wind (1939), and animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Gulliver's Travels (1939), and Fantasia (1940).

Burt Gillett

Bert GillettBurt Gillett's Toodle TalesBurton Gillett
In 1932, the first short animated film created entirely with Technicolor (using red/green/blue photographic filters and three strips of film in the camera) was Disney's Flowers and Trees, directed by Burt Gillett.
Burton F. Gillett (October 15, 1891 - December 28, 1971) was a director of animated films.

Porky Pig

PorkyThat's All Folks!Baby Porky
Through the 1930s and 1950s, the golden age of American animation saw new animated characters emerge, including Goofy, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Betty Boop, Popeye, Sylvester the Cat, Woody Woodpecker, Tweety, Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner, Elmer Fudd, Foghorn Leghorn, Yosemite Sam, Tasmanian Devil, Hunky and Spunky, Droopy, Little Audrey, Tom and Jerry, Barney Bear, Mr. Magoo, Mighty Mouse, Gandy Goose, Heckle and Jeckle, George and Junior, the Fox and the Crow and the animated adoption of Superman, Baby Huey, Casper the Friendly Ghost, Little Lulu, among others.
Porky Pig is an animated character in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons.

Betty Boop

Pudgy the PuppyBaby (Betty) Boopeponymous character
Through the 1930s and 1950s, the golden age of American animation saw new animated characters emerge, including Goofy, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Betty Boop, Popeye, Sylvester the Cat, Woody Woodpecker, Tweety, Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner, Elmer Fudd, Foghorn Leghorn, Yosemite Sam, Tasmanian Devil, Hunky and Spunky, Droopy, Little Audrey, Tom and Jerry, Barney Bear, Mr. Magoo, Mighty Mouse, Gandy Goose, Heckle and Jeckle, George and Junior, the Fox and the Crow and the animated adoption of Superman, Baby Huey, Casper the Friendly Ghost, Little Lulu, among others.
Betty Boop is an animated cartoon character created by Max Fleischer, with help from animators including Grim Natwick.

Yosemite Sam

SamBaby SamK'chutha Sa'am
Through the 1930s and 1950s, the golden age of American animation saw new animated characters emerge, including Goofy, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Betty Boop, Popeye, Sylvester the Cat, Woody Woodpecker, Tweety, Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner, Elmer Fudd, Foghorn Leghorn, Yosemite Sam, Tasmanian Devil, Hunky and Spunky, Droopy, Little Audrey, Tom and Jerry, Barney Bear, Mr. Magoo, Mighty Mouse, Gandy Goose, Heckle and Jeckle, George and Junior, the Fox and the Crow and the animated adoption of Superman, Baby Huey, Casper the Friendly Ghost, Little Lulu, among others.
Yosemite Sam is an American animated cartoon character in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons produced by Warner Bros. Animation.

Earl Hurd

The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.
He is noted for creating and producing the silent Bobby Bumps animated short subject series for early animation producer J.R. Bray's Bray Productions.